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Discovery of 280,000-Year-Old Javelin Challenges Current Beliefs on Evolution

Discovery of 280,000-Year-Old Javelin Challenges Current Beliefs on Evolution

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A new study published in the journal PLOS ONE has revealed a discovery that serves to challenge a number of adamant and self-assured scientists who have refused to believe that pre-human species had the intelligence to construct complex tools or weapons.

A group of scientists investigated a number of stone-tipped projectile weapons that were unearthed at the Gademotta Formation on the surrounds of an ancient volcanic crater in Ethiopia’s Rift Valley. Incredibly, the weapons date back 280,000 years which is 200,000 years older than previous examples of similar weapons, and 80,000 years older than the earliest known fossils of our species, Homo sapiens.

It is a victory for ‘alternative’ archaeologists who have advocated for the intelligence of pre-human hominid species, and who have maintained for years that Neanderthals and other extinct relatives were not just primitive brutes, but had language, culture, and the ability to create tools, weapons and other equipment.

It also supports another recent study which put forward the possibility that it was the Neanderthals who taught the humans how to create tools .

The sharp-tipped artefacts were used as javelins, most likely to strike animals like antelope, crocodiles and hippos from a distance. A total of 141 obsidian spear tips were studied and many of them contained damage, which most likely occurred during hunting.

"We were only interested in testing the hypothesis that these tools were definitely used to tip spears," said researcher Yonatan Sahle, an archaeologist at the University of California, Berkeley. "The eureka came much later as we did the analysis and found out that the features we were dealing with were the result of throwing impact, not thrusting."

The invention of projectile weapons was a major advance over thrusting spears carried in hand because they enabled prehistoric hunters to strike at a distance, reducing the risk of injury from dangerous animals and broadening the range of prey that they could hunt. Such weapons are considered signs of complex behaviour that many scientists attributed to modern humans. However, the current study shows that such behaviour didn’t begin with humans.

"The implication is that certain behavioural traits that are considered complex and mostly only the domains of anatomically modern humans—such as the capacity to make and use projectiles—were not only incorporated into the technological repertoire of the African early Homo sapiens, but also had earlier roots and were present in populations ancestral to Homo sapiens," Sahle said.

Stone-tipped hunting spears appear in the fossil record beginning about 500,000 years ago. However, these were thrusting spears, not thrown javelins. Until now, the oldest conclusive evidence dated such projectiles at 80,000 years old.

Shea cautioned not to assume that these javelin tips are the oldest or the first. "It's often assumed that the earliest discovery of anything is the first instance of anything," Shea said. "This is just the oldest example we have so far of this technology—it doesn't mean that this is where it first evolved."

Prehistoric Art of the Stone Age Types, Characteristics, Chronology

Venus of Willendorf (25,000 BCE)
One of the famous Venus Figurines
of the Upper Paleolithic.

Stone Age lions watching prey.
Chauvet Cave (c.30,000 BCE)
Franco-Cantabrian cave art from
the Late Aurignacian.

Introduction to Prehistoric Art

Archeologists have identified 4 basic types of Stone Age art, as follows: petroglyphs (cupules, rock carvings and engravings) pictographs (pictorial imagery, ideomorphs, ideograms or symbols), a category that includes cave painting and drawing and prehistoric sculpture (including small totemic statuettes known as Venus Figurines, various forms of zoomorphic and therianthropic ivory carving, and relief sculptures) and megalithic art (petroforms or any other works associated with arrangements of stones). Artworks that are applied to an immoveable rock surface are classified as parietal art works that are portable are classified as mobiliary art.

The earliest forms of prehistoric art are extremely primitive. The cupule, for instance - a mysterious type of Paleolithic cultural marking - amounts to no more than a hemispherical or cup-like scouring of the rock surface. The early sculptures known as the Venuses of Tan-Tan and Berekhat Ram, are such crude representations of humanoid shapes that some experts doubt whether they are works of art at all. It is not until the Upper Paleolithic (from roughly 40,000 BCE onwards) that anatomically modern man produces recognizable carvings and pictures. Aurignacian culture, in particular, witnesses an explosion of rock art, including the El Castillo cave paintings, the monochrome cave murals at Chauvet, the Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel, the Venus of Hohle Fels, the animal carvings of the Swabian Jura, Aboriginal rock art from Australia, and much more. The later Gravettian and Magdalenian cultures gave birth to even more sophisticated versions of prehistoric art, notably the polychrome Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle and the sensational cave paintings at Lascaux and Altamira.

Dating and Chronology of Prehistoric Art
A number of highly sophisticated techniques - such as radiometric testing, Uranium/Thorium dating and thermoluminescence - are now available to help establish the date of ancient artifacts from the Paleolithic era and later. However, dating of ancient art is not an exact science, and results are often dependent on tests performed on the 'layer' of earth and debris in which the artifact was lying, or - in the case of rock engraving - an analysis of the content and style of the markings. (Animal drawings using regular side-profiles, for instance, are typically older than those using three-quarter profiles.) For a chronological list of dates and events associated with Stone Age culture, see: Prehistoric Art Timeline.

The main geological epochs include:
PLIOCENE (c.5,300,000 BCE)
This epoch begins roughly with the
emergence of upright early hominids.
They were too busy trying to stay alive
to create art. This period used to end
2.5 million years ago when humans
first started making tools, but
geologists extended it to 1.6 million
BCE, trapping the early Lower
Paleolithic period in it.
PLEISTOCENE (c.1.6m - 10,000 BCE)
This is a geologic period that covers
the earth's most recent glaciations.
It includes the later part of the
Lower Paleolithic as well as the
Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods.
It witnessed the emergence of modern
man and the great works of Paleolithic
rock art, like cupules, petroglyphs,
engravings, pictographs, cave murals,
sculpture and ceramics. The term
pleistocene comes from Greek words
(pleistos "most") and (kainos "new").
For fact-addicts, the Pleistocene is the
third stage in the Neogene period or
6th epoch of the Cenozoic Era.
HOLOCENE (c.10,000 BCE - now)
During its prehistory section this
geological period saw the birth of
Human civilization, as well as a
range of sophisticated paintings,
bronze sculptures, exquisite pottery,
pyramid and megalithic monomental
architecture. Like its predecessor the
Pleistocene, the Holocene epoch is
a geological period, and its name
derives from the Greek words ("holos",
whole or entire) and ("kainos", new),
meaning "entirely recent". It is
divided into 4 overlapping periods:
the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age),
the Neolithic (New Stone Age),
the Bronze Age and Iron Age.

The longest phase of Stone Age culture - known as the Paleolithic period - is a hunter-gatherer culture which is usually divided into three parts:

(1) Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000-200,000 BCE)
(2) Middle Paleolithic (200,000-40,000 BCE)
(3) Upper Paleolithic (40,000-10,000 BCE).

After this comes a transitional phase called the Mesolithic period (sometimes known as epipaleolithic), ending with the spread of agriculture, followed by the Neolithic period (the New Stone Age) which witnessed the establishment of permanent settlements. The Stone Age ends as stone tools become superceded by the new products of bronze and iron metallurgy, and is followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age.

WARNING: All periods are approximate. Dates for specific cultures are given as a rough guide only, as disagreement persists as to classification, terminology and chronology.

Paleolithic Era (c.2,500,000 - 10,000 BCE)

Characterized by a Stone Age subsistence culture and the evolution of the human species from primitive australopiths via Homo erectus and Homo sapiens to anatomically modern humans. See: Paleolithic Art and Culture.

Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000 - 200,000 BCE)

- Olduwan culture (2,500,000 - 1,500,000 BCE)
- Acheulean culture (1,650,000 - 100,000 BCE)
- Clactonian culture (c.400,000 – 300,000 BCE)

Middle Paleolithic (200,000 - 40,000 BCE)

- Mousterian culture (300,000 - 30,000 BCE)
- Levallois Flake Tool culture (dominant c.100,000 - 30,000 BCE)

Upper Paleolithic (40,000-8,000 BCE)

- Aurignacian culture (40,000 - 26,000 BCE)
- Perigordian (Chatelperronian) culture (35,000-27,000 BCE)
- Gravettian culture (26,000 - 20,000 BCE)
- Solutrean culture (19,000 – 15,000 BCE)
- Magdalenian culture (16,000 - 8,000 BCE)

Note: Neither Perigordian (aka Chatelperronian) nor Solutrean cultures are strongly associated with artistic achievements. Artworks created during their eras are believed to have been influenced by other cultures.

Mesolithic Era
(From 10,000 BCE)

This era joins the Ice Age culture of the Upper Paleolithic with the ice-free, farming culture of the Neolithic. It is characterized by more advanced hunter-gathering, fishing and rudimentary forms of cultivation.

Neolithic Era
(From 8,000-4,000 BCE to 2000 BCE)

This era is characterized by farming, domestication of animals, settled communities and the emergence of important ancient civilizations (eg. Sumerian, Egyptian). Portable art and monumental architecture dominate.

Human Evolution: From Axes to Art

How did prehistoric man manage to leave behind such a rich cultural heritage of rock art? Answer: by developing a bigger and more sophisticated brain. Brain performance is directly associated with a number of "higher" functions such as language and creative expression.

The consensus among most most paleontologists and paleoanthropologists, is that the human species (Homo) split away from gorillas in Africa about 8 million BCE, and from chimpanzees no later than 5 million BCE. (The discovery of a hominid skull [Sahelanthropus tchadensis] dated about 7 million years ago, may indicate an earlier divergence). The very early hominids included species like Australopithecus afarensis and Paranthropus robustus (brain capacity 350-500 cc).

About 2.5 million years BCE, some humans began to make stone tools (like very crude choppers and hand-axes), and newer species like Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis emerged (brain capacity 590-690 cc). By 2 million years BCE more species of humans appeared, such as Homo erectus (brain capacity 800-1250 cc). During the following 500,000 years, Homo erectus spread from Africa to the Middle East, Asia and Europe.

Between 1.5 million BCE and 500,000 BCE, Homo erectus and other variants of humans engendered more highly developed types of Homo, known as Archaic Homo sapiens. It was a group of artists from one of these Archaic Homo sapiens species that created the Bhimbetka petroglyphs and cupules in the Auditorium cave situated at Bhimbetka in India, and at Daraki-Chattan. These cupules are the oldest art on earth.

From 500,000 BCE onwards, these new types morphed into Homo sapiens, as exemplified by Neanderthal Man (from 200,000 BCE or earlier). Neanderthals had a brain size of about 1500 cc, which is actually greater than today's modern man, so clearly cranial capacity is not the only guide to intellect: internal brain architecture is important too. In all probability Neanderthal sculptors (or their contemporaries) created the famous figurines known as the Venus of Berekhat Ram and the Venus of Tan-Tan, as well as the ochre stone engravings at the Blombos cave in South Africa, and the cupules at the Dordogne rock shelter at La Ferrassie.

Finally, about 100,000 BCE, "anatomically modern man" emerged from somewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, and, like his predecessors, headed north: reaching North Africa by about 70,000 BCE and becoming established in Europe no later than the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 BCE). Painters and sculptors belonging to modern man (eg. Cro-Magnon Man, Grimaldi Man) were responsible for the glorious cave painting in France and the Iberian peninsular, as well as the miniature "venus" sculptures and the ivory carvings of the Swabian Jura, found in the caves of Vogelherd, Hohle Fels, and Hohlenstein-Stadel.

Note: Traditionally, prehistoric painting and sculpture is not classified as primitivism/primitive art - a category which is usually reserved for later tribal art.

Paleolithic Period
(c.2,500,000 - 10,000 BCE)

Traditionally, this period is divided into three sub-sections: the Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic, each marking advances (especially in tool technology) among different human cultures. In essence, Paleolithic Man lived solely by hunting and gathering, while his successors during the later Mesolithic and Neolithic times developed systems of agriculture and ultimately permanent settlements.

Survival wasn't easy, not least because of numerous adverse climatic changes: on four separate occasions the northern latitudes experienced ice ages resulting insuccessive waves of freezing and thawing, and triggering migrations or widespread death. In fact, the development of human culture during Paleolithic times was repeatedly and profoundly affected by environmental factors. Paleolithic humans were food gatherers, who depended for their subsistence on hunting wild animals, fishing, and collecting berries, fruits and nuts. It wasn't until about 8,000 BCE that more secure methods of feeding (agriculture and animal domestication) were adopted.

Stone Tools – The Key to Civilization, Culture and Art

Stone tools were the instruments by which early Man developed and progressed. All human culture is based on the ingenuity and brainpower of our early ancestors in creating ever more sophisticated tools that enabled them to survive and prosper. After all, fine art is merely a reflection of society, and prehistoric societies were largely defined by the type of tool used. In fact, Paleolithic culture is charted and classified according to advancing tool technologies.

Incidentally, many of the earliest archeological finds of Stone Age artifacts were made in France, thus French place-names have long been used to chart the various Paleolithic subdivisions, despite the huge regional differences that exist.

Stone Age Tool Technology

The first stone tools, (eoliths) were made more than two million years ago - not just from stone but from all types of organic materials (wood, bone, ivory, antler). However, most archeological finds comprise the more durable stone variety. The oldest human tools were simple stone choppers, such as those unearthed at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

According to paleoanthropologists, Paleolithic Man produced four types of better and better tools. These were: (1) Pebble-tools (with a single sharpened edge for cutting or chopping) (2) Bifacial-tools (eg. hand-axes) (3) Flake-tools and (4) Blade-tools. All types eventually came into use, and new tool techniques were created to produce them, with the older technique persisting as long as it was needed for a given purpose.

The Lower Paleolithic Era
(2,500,000 - 200,000 BCE)

This is the earliest period of the Paleolithic Age. It runs from the first appearance of Man as a tool-making mammal to the advent of important evolutionary and technological changes which marked the start of the Middle Paleolithic. It witnessed the emergence of three different tool-based cultures: (1) Olduwan culture (2,500,000-1,500,000 BCE) (2) Acheulean culture (1,650,000-100,000 BCE) and (3) Clactonian culture (c.400,000𤬜,000 BCE). In a sense, stone tools represented the "art" of this period - the key form of creative human expression.

Lower Paleolithic Tool Cultures

Oldowan Culture (2,500,000 - 1,500,000 BCE)

Oldowan describes the first stone tools used by prehistoric Man of the Lower Paleolithic. Oldowan culture began about 2.5 million years ago, appearing first in the Gona and Omo Basins of Ethiopia. The key feature of Oldowan tool manufacture was the method of chipping stones to create a chopping or cutting edge. Most tools were fashioned using a single strike of one rock against another to create a sharp-edged flake.

Acheulean Culture and Art (1,650,000 - 100,000 BCE)

Acheulean culture was the most important and dominant tool-making tradition of the Lower Palaeolithic era throughout Africa and much of Asia and Europe. Named after the type-site village of Saint Acheul in northern France, and associated with Homo ergaster, Homo heidelbergensis and western Homo erectus, Acheulean tool users with their signature style oval and pear-shaped hand-axes were the first humans to expand successfully across Eurasia. Judging by the sophisticated design of these implements, it is no surprise that the earliest art by Stone Age man dates from Acheulean Culture. Also, archeologists now believe that Acheulean peoples were the first to experience fire, (around 1.4 million years BCE), as a result of lightning, although amazingly it wasn't until about 8,000 BCE that man learned exactly how to control it.

Clactonian Culture (c.400,000 – 300,000 BCE)

Clactonian describes a culture of European flint tool manufacture or "art", associated with Homo erectus, dating from the early period of the interglacial period known as the Hoxnian, the Mindel-Riss or the Holstein interglacial (approx 300,000 – 200,000 BCE).

It was named after type-sites located at Clacton-on-Sea, on the SE coast of England and at Swanscombe in Kent. The latter also provided evidence for the existence of a sub-species of Homo erectus known as Swanscombe Man. Clactonian tools were sometimes notched, indicating they were attached to a handle or shaft.

Lower Paleolithic Rock Art

The earliest recorded examples of human art were created during the Lower Paleolithic in the caves and rock shelters of central India. They consisted of a number of petroglyphs (10 cupules and an engraving or groove) discovered during the 1990s in a quartzite rock shelter (Auditorium cave) at Bhimbetka in central India. This rock art dates from at least 290,000 BCE. However, it may turn out to be much older (c.700,000 BCE). Archeological excavations from a second cave, at Daraki-Chattan in the same region, are believed to be of a similar age.

The next oldest prehistoric art from the Lower Paleolithic comes almost at the end of the period. Two primitive figurines - the Venus of Berekhat Ram (found on the Golan Heights) and the Venus of Tan-Tan (discovered in Morocco) were dated to between roughly 200,000 and 500,000 BCE (the former is more ancient).

Middle Paleolithic Era
(200,000 - 40,000 BCE)

The Middle Paleolithic period is the second stage of the Paleolithic Era, as applied to Europe, Africa and Asia. The dominant Paleolithic culture was Mousterian, a flake tool industry largely characterized by the point and side scraper, associated (in Europe) with Homo neanderthalensis. This was not a period of great invention - plain hand-axes, for instance, were still regularly employed - but major improvements were made in the basic process of tool-making, and in the range and proper utilization of manufactured implements. Towards the end of the period, Mousterian tool technology was enhanced by another culture known as Levallois, and practised in North Africa, the Middle East and as far afield as Siberia.

Mousterian Culture (300,000 - 30,000 BCE)

The name Mousterian derives from the type-site of Le Moustier, a cave in the Dordogne region of southern France, although the same technology was practised across the unglaciated zones of Europe and also the Middle East and North Africa. Tool forms featured a wide variety of specialized shapes, including barbed and serrated edges. These new blade designs helped to reduce the need for humans to use their teeth to perform certain tasks, thus contributing to a diminution of facial and jaw features among later humans.

The Tool-Making Process

Mousterian Man was able to standardize the tool-making process and thus introduce greater efficiency, possibly through division and specialization of labour. Tool-makers went to great efforts to create blades that could be regularly re-sharpened, thus endowing tools with a greater lifespan. Their production of serrated edge blades, special animal-hide scrapers and the like, together with a range of bone instruments such as needles (suggesting the use of animal furs and skins as body coverings and shoes) reveal a growing improvement in cognitive ability - something illustrated by Neanderthal Man's success in hunting large mammoths, an activity which required much greater social organization and cooperation.

Levallois Flake-Tool Culture (c.100,000 - 30,000 BCE)

Named after a suburb of Paris, the Levalloisian is an important flint-knapping culture characterized by an enhanced technique of producing flakes. This involved the preliminary shaping of the core stone into a convex tortoise shape in order to yield larger flakes. Levallois culture influenced many other Middle Paleolithic stone tool industries.

Middle Paleolithic Art

One of the few works of art dating from the Middle Paleolithic, is the pair of ochre rocks decorated with abstract cross-hatch patterns found in the Blombos Caves east of Cape Town. (See also: Prehistoric Abstract Signs.) They are one of the oldest examples of African art, and have been dated to 70,000 BCE. After Blombos, comes the Diepkloof eggshell engravings, dated to 60,000 BCE. It is probable that towards the end of the Upper Paleolithic, human artists began producing primitive forms of Oceanic art in the SW Pacific area, and very early types of Tribal art throughout Africa and Asia, although little has survived. See also the cupules at the La Ferrassie Neanderthal cave in France.

Upper Paleolithic Era
(40,000 - 8,000 BCE)

The Upper Paleolithic is the final and shortest stage of the Paleolithic Age: less than 15 percent of the length of the preceeding Middle Paleolithic. When referring to Africa it is more commonly known as the late Stone Age. In addition to more specialized tools and a more sophisticated way of life, Upper Paleolithic culture spawned the first widespread appearance of human painting and sculpture, which appeared simultaneously in almost every corner of the globe. Also, from the start of the Upper Paleolithic period, the Neanderthal Man sub-species of Homo sapiens was replaced by "anatomically modern humans" (eg. Cro-Magnon Man, Chancelade Man and Grimaldi Man) who became the sole hominid inhabitants across continental Europe. But see for instance the Neanderthal engraving at Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar (37,000 BCE).

The five main tool cultures of the Upper Paleolithic were (1) Perigordian (aka Chatelperronian (2) Aurignacian (3) Gravettian (4) Solutrean and (5) Magdalenian.

Upper Paleolithic Society

The era saw the construction of the earliest man-made dwellings (mostly semi-subterranean pit houses), while the location of settlements indicates a more complex pattern of social interreaction, involving collective hunting, organized fishing, social stratification, ceremonial events, supernatural and religious ritual. Other developments included the beginning of private property, the use of needle and thread, and clothing.

Upper Paleolithic Art

The Upper Paleolithic period witnessed the beginning of fine art, featuring drawing, modelling, sculpture, and painting, as well as jewellery, personal adornments and early forms of music and dance. The three main art forms were cave painting, rock engraving and miniature figurative carvings.

Upper Paleolithic Cave Painting

During this period, prehistoric society began to accept ritual and ceremony - of a quasi-religious or shaman-type nature. As a result, certain caves were reserved as prehistoric art galleries, where artists began to paint animals and hunting scenes, as well as a variety of abstract or symbolic drawings.

Cave art first appeared during the early Aurignacian culture, as exemplified by the dots and hand stencils of the El Castillo Cave paintings (c.39,000 BCE), the stencils and animal images in the Sulawesi Cave art (c.37,900 BCE), the figurative Fumane Cave paintings (c.35,000 BCE) and the fabulous monochrome Chauvet Cave paintings (c.30,000 BCE) of animals. A recent discovery is the Coliboaia Cave Art (30,000 BCE) - now radiocarbon dated - in north-west Romania.

Examples of Gravettian art include the prehistoric hand stencils at the (now underwater) Cosquer Cave (c.25,000 BCE) and Roucadour Cave (24,000 BCE), and the polychrome charcoal and ochre images at Pech-Merle (c.25,000 BCE) and Cougnac Cave (c.23,000 BCE). But without doubt, the most evocative art of the period is the Gargas Cave hand stencils (25,000 BCE), featuring a chilling array of mutilated fingers.

During the Solutrean period, prehistoric painters (influenced by late Gravettian traditions) began work on their magnificent polychrome images of horses, bulls and other animals in the Lascaux Cave (from 17,000 BCE), and the Spanish Cantabrian Cave of La Pasiega (from 16,000 BCE).

Magdalenian cave painting is well represented by the polychrome images of bison and deer at Altamira Cave in Spain (from 15,000 BCE), the reindeer pictures on antlers found at the French Lortet Cave (from 15,000 BCE), the painted engravings at Font de Gaume Cave (14,000 BCE), the black paintings of mammoths at Rouffignac Cave (14,000 BCE), the red and black paintings in the Tito Bustillo Cave (14,000 BCE) and the Russian Kapova Cave paintings (c.12,500 BCE) in Bashkortostan.

In Australia, the oldest cave art is the Nawarla Gabarnmang charcoal drawing in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, which is carbon-dated to 26,000 BCE. The Koonalda Cave Art (finger-fluting) dates to 18,000 BCE, while the figurative Bradshaw paintings have been carbon-dated to 15,500 BCE. In Africa, the animal figure paintings in charcoal and red ochre on the Apollo 11 Cave Stones in Namibia date from 25,500 BCE, while in the Americas the hand stencil images at the Cueva de las Manos (Cave of the Hands) in Argentina, date from around 9,500 BCE.

For details of the colour pigments used by Stone Age cave painters, see: Prehistoric Colour Palette.

Upper Paleolithic Rock Engraving

Upper Paleolithic rock engraving is exemplified by the following sites: Abri Castanet (35,000 BCE), Grotte des Deux-Ouvertures (26,500), Cussac Cave (25,000), Cosquer Cave (25,000) Le Placard Cave (17,500), Roc-de-Sers Cave (17,200), Lascaux Cave (17,000), Rouffignac Cave (14,000), Trois Freres Cave (13,000) and Les Combarelles Cave (12,000).

Further afield, Aboriginal rock art began in the north of Australia, where the first 'modern' humans arrived from SE Asia. Ubirr rock art and Kimberley rock art are both believed to date from as early as 30,000 BCE, as are the ancient Burrup Peninsula rock engravings in the Pilbara, Western Australia. All these Australian Paleolithic sites are famous for their open air engraved drawings, whereas almost all the European engravings were created inside caves: the leading exception being the Coa Valley Engravings, Portugal (22,000 BCE).

Upper Paleolithic Sculpture

Upper Paleolithic artists produced a vast number of small sculptures of female figures, known as Venus Figurines. During Aurignacian times, they included: the Venus of Hohle Fels (ivory, 35,500 BCE), and the Venus of Galgenberg (also known as the Stratzing Figurine) (c.30,000 BCE). During the following Gravettian culture, more appeared, such as: the Venus of Dolni Vestonice (ceramic clay figurine: c.26,000 BCE) the Venus of Monpazier (limonite carving: c.25,000 BCE) the Venus of Willendorf (oolitic limestone sculpture: c.25,000 BCE) the Venus of Savignano (serpentine sculpture: c.24,000 BCE) the Venus of Moravany (mammoth ivory carving: c.24,000 BCE) the Venus of Laussel (limestone sculpture: c.23,000 BCE) the Venus of Brassempouy (mammoth ivory: c.23,000 BCE) the Venus of Lespugue (mammoth ivory: c.23,000 BCE) the Venus of Kostenky (mammoth ivory carving: 22,000 BCE), the Venus of Gagarino (volcanic rock: c.22,000 BCE), the Avdeevo Venuses (ivory: c.20,000 BCE), the Zaraysk Venuses (ivory: c.20,000 BCE) and the Mal'ta Venuses (ivory: 20,000 BCE), to name but a few. Other non-female examples include the ivory Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel (c.38,000 BCE). For later sculptures from the Magdalenian period, please see: Venus of Eliseevichi (14,000 BCE), the German Venus of Engen ("Petersfels Venus") (13,000 BCE) and the Venus of Monruz-Neuchatel (c.10,000 BCE), the last of the Upper Paleolithic figurines.

Upper Paleolithic Relief Sculpture

Stone Age relief sculpture is exemplified by the Dordogne limestone relief known as the Venus of Laussel (c.23,000-20,000 BCE) the beautiful Perigord carving of a salmon/trout in the Abri du Poisson Cave (c.23,000-20,000 BCE) the exceptional frieze at Roc-de-Sers Cave (17,200 BCE) in the Charente the Cap Blanc Frieze (15,000 BCE) in the Dordogne the Tuc d'Audoubert Bison reliefs (c.13,500 BCE) found in the Ariege and the limestone frieze at Roc-aux-Sorciers (c.12,000 BCE), uncovered at Angles-sur-l'Anglin in the Vienne.

Upper Paleolithic Tool Technology

Tool-making received something of an overhaul. Out went the old hand axes and flake tools, in came a wide range of diversified and specialized tools made from specially prepared stones. They included spear and arrow points, and a signature figure-eight shaped blade. Hafted tools appeared, as did the harpoon, specialist fishing equipment and a range of gravers (or burins) and scrapers. In addition to flint, materials like bone, ivory, and antlers were utilized extensively.

Art and Tool Cultures During the Upper Paleolithic

Aurignacian Culture (about 40,000 - 26,000 BCE)

One of several cultures which co-existed in Upper Paleolithic Europe, it was also practised as far away as south west Asia, its name derives from the type-site near the village of Aurignac in the Haute Garonne, France. Its tools included sophisticated bone implements like points with grooves cut in the bottom for attachment to handles/spears, scrapers (including nose-scrapers), burins, chisels, and military-style batons.

Aurignacian art also witnessed the first significant manifestations of fine art painting and sculpture: a phenomenom which continued throughout the rest of the Upper Paleolithic era. Notable examples include the red abstract symbols at El Castillo, the monochrome cave murals at Chauvet and Coliboaia, and the early venus figurines from across Europe. Other Aurignacian rock art included hand stencils, finger tracings, engravings, and bas-reliefs.

In addition, Aurignacian humans produced the first personal ornaments made from decorated bone and ivory, such as bracelets, necklaces, pendants and beads. This growing self-awareness, together with the birth of fine art, marks the Aurignacian as the first modern culture of the Stone Age.

Perigordian/Chatelperronian Culture: (about 33,000-27,000 BCE)

Châtelperronian was an important Upper Paleolithic culture of central and southern France. Derived from the earlier Mousterian, practised by Homo neanderthalensis, it employed Levallois flake-tool technology, producing toothed and serrated stone tools as well as a signature flint blades (possibly used to make jewellery) with blunted backs known as "Châtelperron points". No particular art is associated with this culture.

Gravettian Culture (about 26,000 - 20,000 BCE)

The Gravettian was a European Upper Palaeolithic culture whose name derives from the type-site of La Gravette in the Dordogne department of France. Practised in eastern, central and western Europe, its signature tool (derived from the Châtelperron point) was a small pointed blade with a blunt but straight back - called a Gravette Point. Personal jewellery continued to be manufactured, and more personal property is evident, indicating an increasing degree of social stratification.

Gravettian art is immensely rich in both cave painting and portable sculptural works. The former is exemplified by the wonderful stencil art at Cosquer cave and the coloured charcoal and ochre pictures at Pech-Merle cave. The most famous Gravettian sculpture consists of venus figurines, such as the Venuses of Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic), Willendorf (Austria), Savignano (Italy), Kostenky (Russia), Moravany (Slovakia), Laussel (France), Brassempouy (France), Lespugue (France), and Gagarino (Russia).

Solutrean Culture (about 20,000 – 15,000 BCE)

This culture comes from the type-site of Solutré in the Mâcon district of eastern France. Curiously, Solutrean tool-makers appear to have developed a number of uniquely advanced techniques, some of which were not seen for several thousand years after their departure. In any event, Solutrean people produced the finest Paleolithic flint craftsmanship in western Europe.

However, around 15,000 BCE, Solutrean culture mysteriously vanishes from the archeological record. Some paleoanthropologists believe there are affinities between Solutean and the later North American Clovis culture (as evidenced by artifacts found at Blackwater Draw in New Mexico, USA), indicating that Solutreans migrated across the frozen Atlantic to America. Other experts believe that Solutrean culture was overcome by a wave of new invaders.

Perhaps because of its focus on tool technology, Solutrean art is noted above all for its achievements in engraving and relief sculpture - see, for instance the fabulous rock engravings and frieze at the Roc-de-Sers Cave (c.17,200 BCE) - even though the glorious Lascaux cave paintings date from the period. Experts believe that the artists who created the cave murals at Lascaux and La Pasiega were influenced either by late Gravettian or early Magdalenian culture.

Ancient pottery also appeared at this time in East Asia. The oldest known sherds come from the Xianrendong Cave Pottery (c.18,000 BCE), discovered in northeast Jiangxi Province, China. After this comes Yuchanyan Cave Pottery (c.16,000 BCE) from China's Hunan province, and Amur River Basin Pottery (14,300 BCE). Meanwhile, in Japan, ceramics began with Jomon Pottery (from 14,500 BCE). For more chronological details, see: Pottery Timeline.

Magdalenian Culture (about 15,000 - 8,000 BCE)

Magdalenian is the final culture of the period and the apogee of Paleolithic art, of the Old Stone Age. Its name comes from the type-site of La Madeleine near Les Eyzies in the French Dordogne. Magdalenian tool technology is defined by the production of smaller and more sophisticated tools (from barbed points to needles, well-crafted scrapers to parrot-beak gravers) made from fine flint-flakes and animal sources (bone, ivory etc), whose specialized functions and delicacy testify to the culture's advanced nature.

Magdalenian culture attached a growing importance to aesthetic objects, such as personal jewellery, ceremonial accessories, clothing and especially fine art. Ceramics also appeared in Europe - see Vela Spila pottery (15,500 BCE), for instance, from Croatia.

Indeed, the cultural horizons of Magdalenian people are easily appreciated by studying the upsurge of drawing, painting, relief sculpture of the period, exemplified by the Altimira Cave paintings - whose symbolism in particular represents the first attempt by humans to impose their own sense of meaning on a relatively uncertain world - as well as the Addaura Cave engravings (11,000 BCE) whose style is remarkably modern. This unstoppable trend would - within only a few millennia - lead to the appearance of pictographs, hieroglyphics and written language. For details, see: Magdalenian Art.

[Note: Dates for the next four periods of prehistory are strictly approximate. In the case of Mesolithic and Neolithic, this is because their defining characteristics appeared at differing times according to the ice conditions of the region or country. In the case of the Bronze and Iron Ages, this is because certain civilizations developed metallurgical skills at different times. Thus, there are no universal dates for the beginning and end of these eras, so our focus is on Europe.]

Mesolithic Culture
c. 10,000 - 4,000 BCE - Northern and Western Europe
c. 10,000 - 7,000 BCE - Southeast Europe
c. 10,000 - 8,000 BCE - Middle East and Rest of World

The Mesolithic period is a transitional era between the ice-affected hunter-gatherer culture of the Upper Paleolithic, and the farming culture of the Neolithic. The greater the effect of the retreating ice on the environment of a region, the longer the Mesolithic era lasted. So, in areas with no ice (eg. the Middle East), people transitioned quite rapidly from hunting/gathering to agriculture. Their Mesolithic period was therefore short, and often referred to as the Epi-Paleolithic or Epipaleolithic. By comparison, in areas undergoing the change from ice to no-ice, the Mesolithic era and its culture lasted much longer.

NOTE: The term "Mesolithic" is no longer used to denote a worldwide period in the evolution of European cultural evolution. Instead, it describes only the situation in northwestern Europe - Scandinavia, Britain, France, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany - and central Europe.

European Mesolithic Humans

Archeological discoveries of Mesolithic remains bear witness to a great variety of races. These include the Azilian Ofnet Man (Bavaria) several later types of Cro-Magnon Man types of brachycephalic humans (short-skulled) and types of dolichocephalic humans (long-skulled).

European Mesolithic Cultures

As the ice disappeared, to be replaced by grasslands and forests, mobility and flexibility became more important in the hunting and acquisition of food. As a result, Mesolithic cultures are characterized by small, lighter flint tools, quantities of fishing tackle, stone adzes, bows and arrows. Very gradually, at least in Europe, hunting and fishing was superceded by farming and the domestication of animals. The three main European Mesolithic cultures are: Azilian, Tardenoisian and Maglemosian. Azilian was a stone industry, largely microlithic, associated with Ofnet Man. Tardenoisian, associated with Tardenoisian Man, produced small flint blades and small flint implements with geometrical shapes, together with bone harpoons using flint flakes as barbs. Maglemosian (northern Europe) was a bone and horn culture, producing flint scrapers, borers and core-axes.

Mesolithic art reflects the arrival of new living conditions and hunting practices caused by the disappearance of the great herds of animals from Spain and France, at the end of the Ice Age. Forests now cloaked the landscape, necessitating more careful and cooperative hunting arrangements. European Mesolithic rock art gives more space to human figures, and is characterized by keener observation, and greater narrative in the paintings. Also, because of the warmer weather, it moves from caves to outdoor sites in numerous locations.

Famous Works of Art From the Mesolithic Period

Famous works of painting and sculpture created by Mesolithic artists include the following:

Artwork: Cueva de las Manos (Cave of the Hands) (c.9500 BCE)
Type: Stencils of Hands Pigments on Rock
Local Period: Upper Paleolithic/Neolithic
Location: Rio de las Pinturas, Argentina

Artwork: Bhimbetka Rock Art (c.9,000-7,000 BCE)
Type: Paintings and Stencil Art
Local Period: Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic
Location: Madhya Pradesh, India

Artwork: Paintings on Pachmari Hills (9000� BCE)
Type: Pigments on Sandstone
Local Period: Mesolithic
Location: Satpura Range of Central India

Artwork: Wonderwerk Cave Engravings (c.8200 BCE)
Type: Geometric Designs and Representations of Animals
Local Period: African Neolithic
Location: Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

Artwork: Tassili-n-Ajjer Rock Art (c.8000 BCE)
Type: Paintings and Engravings
Local Period: Archaic Tradition
Location: Tassili-n-Ajjer, Algeria, N Africa

Artwork: The Shigir Idol (7,500 BCE)
Type: Wood carving of an anthropomorphic figure.
Local Period: Late Mesolithic, Early Neolithic
Location: Peat bog near Sverdlovsk in Russia.

Neolithic Culture
c. 4,000 - 2,000 BCE: Northern and Western Europe
c. 7,000 - 2,000 BCE: Southeast Europe
c. 8,000 - 2,000 BCE: Middle East & Rest of World

The Neolithic era saw a fundamental change in lifestyle throughout the world. OUT went the primitive semi-nomadic style of hunting and gathering food, IN came a much more settled form of existence, based on farming and rearing of domesticated animals. Neolithic culture was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, and farming (staple crops: wheat, barley and rice domesticated animals: sheep, goats, pigs and cattle), and led directly to a growth in crafts like pottery and weaving. All this began about 9,000 BCE in the villages of southern Asia, from where it spread to the Chinese interior - see Neolithic Art in China - and also to the fertile crescent of the Tigris and Euphrates in the Middle East (c.7,000), before spreading to India (c.5,000), Europe (c.4,000), and the Americas (independently) (c.2,500 BCE).

The establishment of settled communities (villages, towns and in due course cities) triggered a variety of new activities, notably: a rapid stimulation of trade, the construction of trading vehicles (mainly boats), new forms of social organizations, along with the growth of religious beliefs and associated ceremonies. And due to improvements in food supply and environmental control, the population rapidly increased. For tens of millennia before the advent of agriculture, the total human population had varied between 5 million and 8 million. By 4,000 BCE, after less than 5,000 years of farming, numbers had risen to 65 million.

In general, the more settled and better-resourced the region, the more art it produces. So it was with Neolithic art, which branched out in several different directions. And although most ancient art remained essentially functional in nature, there was a greater focus on ornamentation and decoration. For instance, jade carving - one of the great specialities of Chinese art - first appeared during the era of Neolithic culture, as does Chinese lacquerware and porcelain. See: Chinese Art Timeline (18,000 BCE - present.)

With greater settlement in villages and other small communities, rock painting begins to be replaced by more portable art. Discoveries in Catal Huyuk, an ancient village in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) include beautiful murals (including the world's first landscape painting), dating from 6,100 BCE. Artworks become progressively ornamented with precious metals (eg. copper is first used in Mesopotamia, while more advanced metallurgy is discovered in South-East Europe). Free standing sculpture, in stone and wood begins to be seen, as well as bronze statuettes (notably by the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the early engines of painting and sculpture in India), primitive jewellery and decorative designs on a variety of artifacts.

However, the major medium of Neolithic civilization was ceramic pottery, the finest examples of which (mostly featuring geometric designs or animal/plant motifs) were produced around the region of Mesopotamia (Iran, Iraq) and the eastern Mediterranean.

Other Cultural Developments

Other important art-related trends which surface during the Neolithic art include writing and religion. The appearance of early hieroglyphic writing systems in Sumer heralds the arrival of pictorial methods of communication, while increased prosperity and security permits greater attention to religious formalities of (eg) worship (in temples) and burial, in megalithic tombs.

Architecture and Megalithic Art

The emergence of the first city state (Uruk, in Mesopotamia) predicts the establishment of more secure communities around the world, many of which will compete to establish their own independent cultural and artistic identity, creating permanent architectural megaliths in the process. (See: History of Architecture). The Neolithic age also saw the emergence of monumental tomb buildings like the Egyptian pyramids and individual monoliths like the Sphinx at Giza - see Ancient Egyptian Architecture for details. For details of tomb architecture and decorative engravings in Ireland during this period, please see Irish Stone Age art.

Other Famous Works of Art From the Neolithic Period

Famous works of painting and sculpture created by Neolithic artists include the following:

Artwork: Jiahu Carvings (c.7000� BCE)
Type: Turquoise Carvings, Bone Flutes
Local Period: Chinese Neolithic
Location: Yellow River Basin of Henan Province, Central China

Artwork: Coldstream Burial Stone (c.6,000 BCE)
Type: Pigments on Quartzite Pebble
Local Period: African Neolithic
Location: Lottering River, Western Cape Province, South Africa

Artwork: The Seated Woman of Catal Huyuk (c.6000 BCE)
Type: Terracotta Sculpture
Local Period: Neolithic
Location: Catal Huyuk, Anatolia, Turkey

Artwork: Egyptian Naquada I Female Figurines (c.5500-3000 BCE)
Type: Small Carved Figures: Bone, Ivory, Stone (Ornamented w. Lapis Lazuli)
Local Period: Egyptian Predynastic Period (Naquada I Period, 4000-3500 BCE)
Location: Egypt

Artwork: Persian Chalcolithic Pottery (c.5000-3500 BCE)
Type: Ceramic Ware painted with Human, Bird, Plant or Animal Motifs
Local Period: Chalcolithic Culture
Location: Iran (Persia)

Artwork: Thinker of Cernavoda (c.5,000 BCE)
Type: Terracotta
Local Period: Neolithic Hamangia Culture
Location: Romania

Artwork: Fish God of Lepenski Vir (c.5000 BCE)
Type: Sandstone Carving
Local Period: Neolithic
Location: Danube Settlement of Lepenski Vir, Serbia

Artwork: Iraqi Samarra and Halaf Ceramic Plates (c.5000)
Type: Ceramic Dish with Figurative or Geometric Decoration
Local Period: Samarra/Halaf Style, Neolithic
Location: Iraq and Syria

Artwork: Dabous Giraffe Engravings (c.4000 BCE)
Type: Saharan Rock Engravings
Local Period: Taureg Culture
Location: Agadez, Niger, Africa

Artwork: Artwork: Valdivia Figurines (c.4000� BCE)
Type: First representational images in the Americas, in limestone and marble
Local Period: Neolithic
Location: Real Alto and Loma Alta sites, Ecuador

Artwork: Pig Dragon Pendant (Hongshan Culture) (c.3800 BCE)
Type: Jade Carving
Local Period: Hongshan Culture
Location: Tomb 4, Niuheliang, Jianping, Liaoning Province, NE China

Bronze Age (In Europe, 3000 BCE - 1200 BCE)

Characterized by the development of metallurgy, in particular copper mining and smelting, along with tin-mining and smelting, as reflected in the exquisite bronze, gold and silver sculptures. Emergence of Egyptian architecture, metallurgy, encaustic painting and stone sculpture. See: Bronze Age Art.

Bronze Age Masterpiece: Ram in a Thicket (c.2500 BCE)

This extraordinary 18-inch high sculpture (British Museum, London) features a ram standing on its hind legs, peering through a symbolic piece of undergrowth. The minimalist depiction of the thicket and the focused, forlorn look on the face of the animal, demonstrates an amazing artistic sensibility and makes it a masterpiece of Sumerian art of the time.
Type: Sculpture in gold-leaf, copper, lapis lazuli, red limestone
Local Period: Early Dynastic
Location: Great Death Pit, Ur, Mesopotamia (Iraq)

Artwork: Maikop Gold Bull (c.2500 BCE)
Type: Gold Sculpture (Lost-Wax Casting Method) (Found with 3 more 1 silver, 2 gold)
Local Period: Maikop Culture
Location: North Caucasus, Russia

Iron Age (In Europe, 1500 BCE - 200 BCE)

Characterized by the processing of iron ore to produce iron tools and weapons. In northern Europe, Hallstatt and La Tene styles of Celtic art flourished, while around the Mediterranean there emerged the great schools of Greek art and Persian art as well as the culture and architecture of the Minoan, Mycenean, and Etruscan civilizations. See: Iron Age Art.

In India, around 200 BCE, the first paintings appeared in the Ajanta Caves. For more, see: Classical Indian Painting (up to 1150 CE).

• For more history and facts about Stone Age arts and crafts, see: Visual Arts Encyclopedia.

Pupil size surprisingly linked to differences in intelligence

So much for rest in peace.

  • Australian scientists found that bodies kept moving for 17 months after being pronounced dead.
  • Researchers used photography capture technology in 30-minute intervals every day to capture the movement.
  • This study could help better identify time of death.

We're learning more new things about death everyday. Much has been said and theorized about the great divide between life and the Great Beyond. While everyone and every culture has their own philosophies and unique ideas on the subject, we're beginning to learn a lot of new scientific facts about the deceased corporeal form.

An Australian scientist has found that human bodies move for more than a year after being pronounced dead. These findings could have implications for fields as diverse as pathology to criminology.

Dead bodies keep moving

Researcher Alyson Wilson studied and photographed the movements of corpses over a 17 month timeframe. She recently told Agence France Presse about the shocking details of her discovery.

Reportedly, she and her team focused a camera for 17 months at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER), taking images of a corpse every 30 minutes during the day. For the entire 17 month duration, the corpse continually moved.

"What we found was that the arms were significantly moving, so that arms that started off down beside the body ended up out to the side of the body," Wilson said.

The researchers mostly expected some kind of movement during the very early stages of decomposition, but Wilson further explained that their continual movement completely surprised the team:

"We think the movements relate to the process of decomposition, as the body mummifies and the ligaments dry out."

During one of the studies, arms that had been next to the body eventually ended up akimbo on their side.

The team's subject was one of the bodies stored at the "body farm," which sits on the outskirts of Sydney. (Wilson took a flight every month to check in on the cadaver.)

Her findings were recently published in the journal, Forensic Science International: Synergy.

Implications of the study

The researchers believe that understanding these after death movements and decomposition rate could help better estimate the time of death. Police for example could benefit from this as they'd be able to give a timeframe to missing persons and link that up with an unidentified corpse. According to the team:

"Understanding decomposition rates for a human donor in the Australian environment is important for police, forensic anthropologists, and pathologists for the estimation of PMI to assist with the identification of unknown victims, as well as the investigation of criminal activity."

While scientists haven't found any evidence of necromancy. . . the discovery remains a curious new understanding about what happens with the body after we die.

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                          Patient volunteers are our heroes

                          We strive to create clinical trials as diverse as the patients we serve. See the stories behind our work.

                          Clinical trials & the power of diversity

                          Advancing science powered by greater diversity in our clinical research

                          Next: Clinical trials & the power of diversity

                          Cancer care during COVID-19: No patient left behind

                          By Dr. Roy Baynes, chief medical officer

                          Next: Cancer care during COVID-19: No patient left behind

                          When diversity in clinical trials is personal

                          How Adrelia's passion for diversity in clinical trials started close to home

                          Next: When diversity in clinical trials is personal

                          No patient left behind: making the impossible possible for clinical trials during adversity

                          With Andy Lee, head of global clinical trial operations

                          Next: No patient left behind: making the impossible possible for clinical trials during adversity

                          Our commitment to patients is unwavering

                          As long as there are patients still in hospitals, doctors and nurses desperate to add years to the lives of their patients and a world where treatments aren’t accessible to all, we will be here: fighting with all we have to deliver more, sooner.

                          Thursday, June 28, 2012

                          Syntagma Square - 28-29 June, 2011

                          Human - The film trailer 2012

                          Watch part 1 here-
                          Watch part 2 here-
                          Watch part 3 here-
                          Watch part 4 here-
                          Watch the full film here-

                          Human is a film about the system we all live and work in and how this system needs to be overhauled. We are all human and this was made for you!

                          The Greek Anarchists

                          This week an exclusive interview with Antonis Vradis of Occupied London. Antonis filled us in on the history and actions of the anarchists in Greece.

                          UK soldiers 'beat innocent Iraqi men in black ops jails but new secret justice law means their torture will be hidden forever'

                          The Mail on Sunday can today reveal devastating new claims of abuse by British soldiers carried out at a secret network of illegal prisons in the Iraqi desert.

                          One innocent civilian victim is said to have died after being assaulted aboard an RAF helicopter, while others were hooded, stripped and beaten at a camp set up at a remote phosphate mine deep in the desert.

                          The whereabouts of a separate group of 64 Iraqi men who were spirited away on two RAF Chinooks to a ‘black site’ prison, located at an oil pipeline pumping station, remain unknown.

                          Perhaps the most shocking aspect of these alleged abuses, which appear to have been flagrant breaches of international law, is that this secret network is claimed to have been sanctioned by senior Ministry of Defence lawyers.

                          Mighty Uke Trailer 3.0

                          MIghty Uke is a feature documentary that travels the world to discover why so many people are turning to the simple ukulele to express their inner music.


                          A film by Abby Moser

                          Throughout 1992 and 1993, sensationalized accounts of the Riot Grrrl phenomenon appeared in publications all over the country, describing a new subculture that had emerged out of the underground punk scene. Despite the intense media interest in Riot Grrrl, little video documentation of this important facet of feminist and pop culture history exists, due in part to a decision by Riot Grrrls to no longer engage with the mainstream media that sensationalized, misrepresented and co-opted them. Filmmaker Abby Moser was granted access to Riot Grrrl NYC, the New York City chapter of this international movement. She interviewed individual members of the group, and documented meetings, rock shows, marches and events. An invaluable historical document, GRRRL LOVE AND REVOLUTION glimpses how the women in Riot Grrrl NYC organized and participated in a movement that revitalized a stagnant alternative rock scene, created safe spaces for women musicians and queer punks, and created a new wave of DIY feminist politics.

                          For more information about this film, please visit

                          Bird Flu Paper Is Published After Debate

                          Some of the early alarm was fed by Dr. Fouchier speaking at conferences and giving interviews last fall in which he boasted that he had “done something really, really stupid” and had “mutated the hell out of H5N1” to create something that was “very, very bad news.” He said his team had created “probably one of the most dangerous viruses you can make.”

                          The artist of the revolution

                          Asserting popular control over public spaces is what made revolutionary spaces such as Change Square possible by mirroring the larger goal of democratic control of government, public institutions and resources.

                          Publically [sic] displayed art makes claims it signals that an area is in control of the people and not regulated by the government or corporate owners of private property, says Al-Ansi.

                          Posters of martyrs and revolutionaries such as Che Guevara are ubiquitous in the square. Al-Ansi displays several portraits of martyrs in his tent. He says he painted or drew most of them while he wept.

                          Molotov Art of Russian Artist Radya Timofey!

                          Australia: A new approach to asylum seekers and refugees is urgently needed


                          Ice Skating

                          Around the 14th Century, the Dutch started using wooden platform skates with flat iron bottom runners. The skates were attached to the skater's shoes with leather straps. Poles were used to propel the skater. Around 1500, the Dutch added a narrow metal double-edged blade, making the poles a thing of the past, as the skater could now push and glide with his feet (called the "Dutch Roll").

                          Figure skating was introduced at the 1908 Summer Olympics and has been included at the Winter Games since 1924. Men's speed skating debuted during the 1924 Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix, France. Ice dance became a medal sport in 1976, with a team event debuting for the 2014 Olympics.

                          Overly Sarcastic Productions uses the following tropes:

                          • Abusive Parents: In the Greek myths, Hera literally throws away an infant Hephaestus, and her relationship with her other son isn't the best either.
                            In Miscellaneous Myths: Loki's Wager, Red draws Brok and Sindri as way more attractive than what was written in the Nordic texts. She justifies this decision by explaining how Dwarves and Dark Elves were considered the same species, so by that logic they should be the same size as a human. She also explains how Ivaldi, the forefather of the dwarves, had a beautiful daughter, Idunn, who became the Aesir goddess of youth. Combining these ideas, she depicts Brok and Sindri as muscular, bearded men who are bigger than Loki.
                          • Discussed in Red's video about Don Quixote. In several adaptations, Don Quixote is depicted as a misunderstood dreamer with a heart of gold, whose odd dreams are admirable and noble. In the book, however, Don Quixote is delusional, violent and volatile. Whose dreams have no basis in reality and are dysfunctional from minute one. Red attributes this change to censorship since Don Quixote can be misinterpreted as a mockery of mental illness, when it's actually about how reality can be just as engaging and interesting as the fiction he emulates.
                          • Downplayed in the Oresteia video. Aegisthus, Clytemnestra's accomplice and co-conspirator, pretty much tags along in her wake and Orestes is said to kill him "just because."
                          • In the Iliad video, Diomedes is visibly horrified when Odysseus kills the man they captured during the stealth mission in the original, he was the one to do the deed. They then proceed to steal King Rhesus's horses and chariot without mentioning that they also killed the sleeping Rhesus and his men in the process.
                          • The title character of "Hippolytus" is a nice asexual boy who expresses no misogynistic sentiments - he just isn't into women - and doesn't threaten to tell his father that Phaedra made a pass at him she makes her False Rape Accusation and commits suicide apparently out of spite.
                          • Discussed regarding Dr. Jekyll. In most modern tellings of Jekyll and Hyde, Dr. Jekyll had good intentions with his chemical experiments about the nature of man and became a victim of the evil Hyde Split Personality. In the original tale, Mr. Hyde was a chemically created disguise Dr. Jekyll used to explore his own darker impulses without consequences to his public identity.
                          • Discussed in Red's Miscellaneous Myths video on Io, where she explains that the Roman poet Ovid is notorious for this due to his anti-authoritarian writing (caused by Augustus exiling him), causing certain Greek deities to act signficantly more immorally, with Athena being the most prominent example despite such behaviour being out of step with the source material. Athena punishing Medusa for being raped by Poseidon in her temple in particular was entirely invented by Ovid (prior to the The Metamorphoses being published, Medusa was a gorgon from birth till death and neither Athena nor Poseidon were involved), and Ovid also does the same for Athena's motives for turning Arachne into a spider (selfishness and jealousy rather than the fact that Arachne's tapestry was incredibly offensive to Athena).
                          • Discussed again in the Myths video on Loki. Red suspects that in the Prose Edda Snorri specifically wrote the Aesir to be unsympathetic and the architects of their own doom. This would make their destruction in Ragnarok a good thing, as it made way for a better world - as in the Norse religion being supplanted by Christianity.
                          • One of the themes in the Epic of Mwindo. Mwindo spends the first two thirds of the epic murdering his way through any challenge by virtue of being awesome, but he eventually oversteps when he impulsively kills the dragon Kirimu, blood brother of the lightning god Nkuba. Nkuba doesn't kill Mwindo, but he does decide to teach him a lesson that this trope is in effect by taking him up to heaven to meet the gods, all of which are vastly more powerful. The gods do impart on him some life lessons, but Mwindo also gets to feel first hand how it is to meet someone more powerful. Namely Kentse, the Sun.
                          • Sun Wukong discovers this when he tries to outwit Buddha.
                          • Babies aren't to blame for the circumstances of their birth. No matter the race, disability or gender, they should be accepted nonetheless.
                          • It's good to be a hero, but not to be reckless. Mwindo got into big trouble when he decided to kill a dragon with no thought of the consequences.
                          • Help each other. Mwindo didn't really need it, but the help from his kin was still very useful.
                          • There's Always a Bigger Fish. No matter how awesome Mwindo was, the gods were still stronger.
                            • Parodied in the video about the Minotaur, where Red sums up the moral of the story as follows:
                            • Red gives Atalanta a bear motif due to her history with bears.
                            • Anansi is depicted as a human with a spider motif, often with spider features.
                            • Io is given a bovine motif due to her transformation into a cow after she was raped by Zeus.
                            • 2016 saw the (in)famous Les Misérables video, responding to suggestions that Blue take over some drawing duties and criticisms that Red speaks too fast and with not enough detail. This results in horrendous scribbles for the artwork (Blue did not have a firm grasp of the intricacies of a drawing tablet) and a stilted, halting delivery from Red as she attempted to be as informative as possible. The pair barely last five minutes before abandoning the video with screams of physical pain and cringe.
                            • In 2017, they uploaded the first episode of what would be their "OSPlays" Let's Play series. Notably, since it's an April Fools episode, it's done parodying the style of a typical loud, high-octane Let's Play, compared to later OSPlays episodes which are more subdued.
                            • In 2018, Red and Blue uploaded a video in which they admitted to being the secret masterminds responsible for every disaster in human history.
                            • 2019's April Fools episode parodies cooking channels, and sees the two preparing the dish "Carthaginian Delight", inspired by the Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage. Instructions include adding "Hannibal Barca's blood" and "salt the Earth" (cue Blue throwing an entire bowl of salt into a pan).
                            • 2020 sees the continuation of the Journey to the West series. as a Minecraft Let's Play.
                            • In 2021, the duo just uploaded a 4 minute video of Blue's cat Cleo, titled "The Cleo Cameo".
                            • When discussing Tantalus' crimes, Red lists kinslaying, cannibalism, theft in breach of hospitality and, worst of all, being Agamemnon's ancestor and stealing a dog.
                            • In Red's video on the Pandora myth, Red's list of the evils Pandora unleashed upon the world includes natural lifespans, childbirth and swedish fish.
                            • Urban Fantasy is a topic Red likes to bring up in her videos.
                            • Blue makes no secret of his love for Venice.
                            • Anime has a huge influence over the channel, as shown by Red's chibi art style.
                            • The God of War franchise also gets a few shout-outs here, either mocking the game's interpretation of Classical Mythology or praising certain elements. An example of this is in Loki's Wager, where Red's design of Brok the dwarf appears to have been based on Magni from God of War (PS4).
                            • He also ends up wearing the magical anti-drowning scarf as a bandana in Classics Summarized: The Odyssey, and is shown wearing his old one in his flashback to before he got stranded
                            • Don't talk to Red about The Taming of the Shrew or the Percy Jackson movies.
                            • Don't be mean to your teachers.
                            • Red's (probably) deliberate mispronunciations of "Bolgia" are this for Blue.
                            • Don't tell Red that you burned the Library of Alexandria.
                            • Don't say "The real story. " around Red when it comes to mythology as there is no canonical story about mythology, just endless retellings and reimaginings of the subject.
                            • Another one for Red: Don't be Agamemnon. Or be in any way responsible for his existence (like Tantalus).
                            • Also, don't be mean to dogs. Again, Tantalus.
                            • One for Blue don't suggest that Cleopatra had become one of the most powerful historical figures of her time due solely to her looks, as opposed to her intelligence and charisma.
                            • Saint Bernard in The Paradisois portrayed by a dog of that breed.
                            • Odysseus's faithful hunting dog in The Odyssey. Too bad it dies right as he returns home.
                            • Hyacinthus is described as being "really pretty".
                            • Alcibiades is described as being "indisputably the most attractive man in the ancient world". He's even portrayed as Henry Cavill with Anime Eyes.
                            • Red really likes drawing men, young and old, this way - Valentine Michael Smith of Stranger in a Strange Land is depicted as a really cute prettyboy.
                            • Blue takes issue with the English king looking about what you'd expect from european royalty at the time, whereas Napoleon is this, or "the missing Jonas brother," as Blue puts it.
                            • When Ra is sick and dying, one of the gods called to help him is Wadjet, who tells him she can't help. Ra is offended, and threatens to sic his other eye at her.
                            • The Atlantis video very briefly brings back the old running gag from the Lovecraft video.
                            • "TRULY A VICTORY FOR THE FORCES OF JUSTICE!"
                            • "So. yeah." This is Red's Signing-Off Catchphrase.
                            • "Feel-good novel of the century!"
                            • "Let's do some history."
                            • ". for funsies." A favorite of Red's.
                            • "Shenanigans" or "Shenaniganary"
                            • Downplayed with the Norse gods, who were generally seen as less powerful in the myths they originate in, but still present in their hair and eyes. Loki, a fire jotun, is drawn with red hair, as is Thor, while Freyr and Freya are blonde with green eyes, and Heimdal is light grey.
                            • The punishment for the souls trapped in the First Circle (Limbo) is to simply not to go to college.
                            • Those in the Second Circle (Lust) are punished by being hit on by a creepy person in a frat party for all eternity.
                            • Souls in the Third Circle (Gluttony) are forced to eat nothing but dining hall food for the rest of time.
                            • People in the Fourth Circle (Greed) are doomed to an eternity of working as a fry cook at Burger King.
                            • Souls in the Fifth Circle (Wrath) are forced to stress and study forever. And if they ever take their eyes off their work, they instantly forget everything.
                            • The Sixth Circle (Heresy): Those who continuously badmouth their professors are forced to hold office hours in burning cubicles forever.
                            • Each of the three rings in the Seventh Circle (Violence) has a different punishment:
                              • In the first ring (Violence Against Neighbors), the souls of those who trash others' rooms are forced to remain in their rooms with the sprinklers going off for the rest of time.
                              • In the second ring (Violence Against Self), people are transformed into expensive textbooks.
                              • In the third ring (Violence Against God, Art, and Nature), souls who whine continuously about college, despite choosing to go there, are forced to wear sweaters from rival universities and deal with the social consequences forever.
                              • Bolgia 1 (Pandering): Those who refuse to contribute in group projects are forced to drag huge boulders around in a twisted infinite relay race.
                              • Bolgia 2 (Flattery): Teacher's pets who endlessly kiss up to their professors are turned into actual pets.
                              • Bolgia 3 (Simony): Those who sign up for prime-time class slots and sell them back for ridiculous prices are sentenced to eternal 8:00 am classes, and are also upside down and on fire.
                              • Bolgia 4 (Sorcery): Those who try to cheat their own futures by procuring previous years' study material are doomed to always using the wrong study guides.
                              • Bolgia 5 (Graft): Those who try and line up "business opportunities" with other students are sentenced to the worst job interview ever. They are unprepared, their suit is uncomfortable, one of their pockets is falling off, one of their shoes is brown and the other is black, and they spend the entire time hoping that the interviewer doesn't notice (but he does).
                              • Bolgia 6 (Hypocrisy): Students who start off squeaky-clean and starry-eyed but wind up completely trashing their work ethic after a single semester are forced to explain their deteriorating grades to their parents over an eternally awkward dinner. Plus, they smell of weed the entire time, which tips off the parents right away.
                              • Bolgia 7 (Theft): Criminals who callously steal unattended laptops in the library are doomed to an eternity of being hunted by Liam Neeson.
                              • Bolgia 8 (Deception): The jerks who lie to their friends during housing by saying that they'll all stick together but leave to get a single all by themselves find themselves in the absolute worst room on campus: no outlets work, there's a sprinkler directly over their bed, the windows don't open, and the room permanently smells of pee. It's also right next to the RA's room and walls are paper-thin, and the neighbors on the other side are constantly having sex. Their roommate also has a significant other who never leaves and has the worst laugh.
                              • Bolgia 9 (Schism): Gossipers who never stop spreading lies suddenly find themselves being gossiped about.
                              • Bolgia 10 (Forgery): Those who plagiarize their work have the words they stole permanently and repeatedly branded on their skin.
                              • Round 1 (Traitors to their Kindred): People who spend all their parents' money are frozen in the nearest body of water.
                              • Round 2 (Traitors to their Country): Those who leave their clothes in the washing machine for hours on end are subjected to a fitting punishment: being trapped in a washing machine with many other souls, as well as someone's laundry.
                              • Round 3 (Traitors to their Guests): Those who make out with their significant other excessively while the roommate is still in the room (it doesn't matter if the roommate is asleep or not) are sentenced to be naked forever.
                              • Round 4 (Traitors to their Lords): The people who are mean to their teachers are doomed to drown in the school's tuition vault while the university president watches and laughs.
                              • In "Dante's Inferno", Dante places Pope Nicholas III in Hell. Nicholas III proceeds to complain about Pope Boniface VIII and Pope Clement V.
                              • Blue discusses some pretty awful popes (including the aforementioned Boniface VIII) in his "Pope Fights" video, even dubbing Benedict IX the "meme Pope" before highlighting it as A Rare Sentence.
                              • Deconstructed in Don Quixote, where the relationship between Dorothea and Don Fernando is entirely false. Don Fernando was creepily persistent and selfishly lacked any form of self-awareness. He bombarded Dorothea and her family with gifts, letters and money until her family told Dorothea that they support her choices and completely understand why she isn't interested in Don Fernando. When he realises that Dorothea is liable to marriage, he comes to the logical idea of breaking into her room in a last-ditch effort to seduce and then marry her. She only agrees to it because the marriage will bring status to her.
                              • Red discusses this concept to give context to why Chretien de Troyes's version of King Arthur portrayed Lancelot's and Guinevere's love affair as morally right (in fact, Lancelot is an invention of Chretien de Troyes), as it was used as an example of various virtues of courtly love such as distant yearning that can never be fulfilled. It didn't last long, as every other version of King Arthur frowns on the love affair as just plain adultery.
                              • For his videos on the Normans and Classical Warfare he is joined by Shad. In "The Normans" he is able to summon Shad by simply shouting "Swords!" Blue has returned the favor, discussing elements of Greek history in some of Shad's videos.
                              • For his video on the history of steelmaking, he's joined by Matt and Ilya from That Works.
                              • For "Dystopias", Red teams up with Hello Future Me.
                              • Book 11 of the Iliad gives us this glorious example.
                              • Odysseus' reaction to his crewmates getting turned into pigs by Circe.
                              • The punishment for souls in the fourth circle of Hell is. confusing, to say the least, but Virgil cuts off Dante's protest before he can say anything too sacrilegious.
                              • Red is often befuddled by Stranger in a Strange Land, in which the hero is free to murder people, force himself on others and start a sex cult, and it is never portrayed as a bad thing, she even points out in the end that, since he is a literal angel of heaven, all of his actions were in the right.
                              • Red sees the claim that Theseus is Athens's greatest hero to be a pretty poor showing for the city-state, pointing to his extreme misogyny (with the Wife Husbandry being a particular note), as well as coming off as a complete idiot in multiple stories (leaving Ariadne behind for no real reason, forgetting to change the sails despite them being a death signal, killing his own son on incredibly spurious reasons, and trying to steal Hades's wife).
                              • Discussed in Red's video on Stranger in a Strange Land the sex cult believes the true meaning of life is have ritualistic orgies until they get superpowers as a result of breeding with the protagonist. Valentine Michael Smith is constantly pursued by the authorities for his multitude of sex crimes but the authorities always disappear before they can arrest him. Red is appropriately horrified by this and openly wonders why Valentine is considered morally superior for all of this.
                              • Interestingly, Red didn't touch the statement made by Heinlein through Jill, "Nine times out of ten, if a girl gets raped, it’s partly her fault."
                              • A meta example with Red's now-iconic art style &mdash the reason why she started drawing her adorable chibis in the first place is because Troy is bad, and she didn't want to use clips from it to illustrate her summary of The Iliad. Since then, she's used her drawings in almost all OSP's videos, and there's been some Art Evolution.
                              • They discuss the trope and note how undeserved it is. They point out that the two questionable things he did was kidnap his wife (common for gods, and by all accounts he treated her well) and imprison two Greek Heroes (who deservedit).
                              • Discussed again in the "Loki" video. Loki is consistently treated as a villain but in his earliest appearance in the Prose Edda, Loki was actually one of the more responsible gods. His decision to bring about Ragnarok seems less evil than righteous anger when it's remembered what the Aesir had previously done to him and his children out of fear and spite. Red suspects it's a mix between Loki having been an antagonistic character in the Edda and the conflation of a god of lies with the Prince of Lies.
                              • Dante does this a lot in The Divine Comedy. Red lampshades it, noting that for a protagonist &mdash and a self-insert one, at that &mdash Dante is kind of a wimp.
                              • Robert Olmstead passes out from seeing dozens of fish people in The Shadow Over Innsmouth.
                              • The Beowulf episode begins with a history of Hrothgar's family tree, which features several guys named Beowulf. Red discusses each, building all of them up to be the real deal, only to stop each one with a record scratch and say it's not the titular Beowulf. It's only after the person watching the video shows up and complains that Red is taking too long to talk about the real one that she finally gets to him.
                              • Turned Up to Eleven in the first April Fool's Day special. Red addresses the criticism that she talks too fast and leaves out important details, so she intends to correct those &mdash while summarizing Les Misérables. She doesn't make it past the first few pages describing Madame Baptistine.
                              • "Perseus": Perseus, his mother, and his maternal grandfather are drawn with green eyes.
                              • "Heracles": Alcmene and her son Heracles both have gold hair and gold eyes.
                              • "The Oresteia": Clytemnestra and all three of her children have periwinkle eyes, implicitly contradicting Apollo's claim that only the father contributes to the creation of a child .
                              • "The Shadow over Innsmouth": Nearly all of the Innsmouth natives have green eyes, but Obed Marsh's most human-looking daughter is drawn with blue eyes &mdash like her great-grandson Robert.
                              • Red has one of these when she discovers how Dante describes God's true form in The Paradiso. It's three rings surrounding a book surrounded itself by rainbows. Rings surrounding a Reading Rainbow, as it were.
                              • Red has another one when she discovers the Internet's reaction to Rey from The Force Awakens.
                              • Io gives Zeus the middle finger after she's freed from her torment and settles down with an Egyptian king.
                              • "Animal Brides" has a kidnapped seal woman who was forced to marry a fisherman who stole her skinsomehow manage to give her "husband" this with her flipper after she manages to get her skin back and escape.
                              • The newborn Krishna flips one to his Evil Uncle after escaping his systematic infanticide.
                              • In the Narcissus episode, the save screen is briefly shown with the names of various lovers of Greek myth. Helen's playtime is 87654 hours, roughly 10 years.
                              • Blue going Super Saiyan in the background after Red finally says "bolgia" correctly. She'd been saying it wrong for pretty much the entire video, likely intentionally just to mess with Blue.
                              • In the "Loki's Wager" video, Brokk writes up a mathematical formula for how long it will take for Draupnir to completely cover the Earth in magic golden rings and how much of a catastrophe it would be. But Odin is too busy marveling at Draupnir to notice.
                              • The Odyssey gives us "Penelope and the Suitors".
                              • The Kali video gives us "Durga and the Matrikas".
                              • The Bram Stoker's Dracula video gives us "Lucy's Boyfriend Squad"
                              • Quetzalcoatl gave us a possible name for a tabletop RPG set in feudal Japan &mdash "Katanas and Kimonos".
                                Parodied. While Patroclus appeals to Achilles to help out the Greeks, Achilles is overcome by "brotherly affection". This is, of course, immediately followed by THREE close-ups of their faces to the tune of "Careless Whisper".
                              • Which reared its head when it paints Loki of all people as a Jesus figure. In "Miscellaneous Myths: Loki," Red brings up the concept of a scapegoat, an Old Testament cleansing ritual where one goat is sacrificed while the other is taken to the wild where it absorbs the sin of man with Christianity added Jesus Christ as the scapegoat and a willing agent to separate from the concept. Since Loki is often picked on by the gods and make him deal with their problems, whether he caused them or not, to absolve of their sin and that Snorri's agenda of christenizing the Norsemen, it ironically makes Loki a Jesus figure, not in a way that most people think of.
                              • Then at the end, she starts complaining about how people keep trying to build a coherent narrative out of mostly disconnected stories from very different authors and times. before quickly realizing the problem with her making that complaint.
                              • Blue hates Red's mispronunciations of "Bolgia". Even more so when he realizes that she's doing it on purpose.
                              • In her video about Cú Chulainn, Red mispronounced his name (Coo HULL-ann) as Koo Cull-ane. She does excuse herself on her pronunciation of Celtic and Gaelic because numerous different pronunciations are used throughout Ireland and she's bound to mispronounce it either way.
                              • Red notes that when researching her video on Fionn Mac Cumhaill, she couldn't find anything specific about the exact nature of the relationship between the title character's female guardians. So she goes on to refer to them as "fighter mom" and "druid mom".
                              • Later discussed in her video on the myth of the Japanese sun goddess Amaterasu, which she reads as an almost literal Coming-Out Story. See the entry for "Not Making This Up" Disclaimer for details.
                              • Averted with Artemis. Red points out that, while Artemis did swear off men, she didn't really show any preference for women either, and argues that she may have been asexual.

                              Priest: By request of the deceased, "my girlfriend is in denial and also a huge skank, chapter 1" "I shall compare thee to a giant bit&mdash

                              Marcela: AHEM!

                              • To conceive Heracles, Zeus disguises himself as Amphitryon and sidles up saying "Hi there, pretty lady who is my wife." Subverted when it turns out that that's just the way Amphitryon actually talks.
                              • "Pwyll, Prince of Dyved":
                              • Aphrodite was a bit "intrusive" with her children's lives. Aphrodite hated Psyche for being prettier than her and went to great lengths to ensure she never dates Eros. With Aeneas, she chooses to encourage a relationship between her son and Dido, despite the relationship hindering Aeneas' journey.
                              • Demeter had an. overreaction to the marriage between Persephone and Hades. When the myth was created, kidnapping had a less sinister meaning and the marriage itself was arranged by Zeus. So when Demeter found out about it, she went on hiatus so she can vent and get it out of her system. However, her hiatus created a famine that could have caused the extinction of humanity and the death of the gods. According to Red, this happens every time Persephone goes to the underworld to live with her husband.
                              • Never My Fault: In the prelude to the Oresteia, Agamemnon tells a weeping Iphigenia it's really Clytemnestra's fault she's being killed, since she fell for the cover story about the marriage to Achilles.
                              • Red puts captions over a moment on All Quiet on the Western Front where children are being sent to the front lines for Germany in the final days of World War I, showing she hates the idea of kids being forced to fight a war. (It's Truth in Television kids really did have to go fight as Germany was so desperate in late 1918 for soldiers that this was the best they could do).
                              • During her summary of Purgatorio, Red finds that souls at the Terrace of Envy have their eyes sewn shut. She promptly screams in horror.
                              • Whatever reason Blue became an atheist. he really doesn’t want to talk about it.
                              • In "Bellerophon", Red mentions a confusing incident involving divine intervention from Poseidon and a whole bunch of naked women.
                              • Red assures us that she is neither joking nor exaggerating upon revealing that the plan that ends up successfully luring Amaterasu out of the cave she's been sulking in is to get Ame-no-Uzume, the goddess of fun, partying, and the dawn, to do a striptease.
                              • During the video on Cu Chulainn, the disclaimer applies to Scathatch's evil twin sister Aife.
                              • She also feels the need to say she's not joking when she says the Athenian tyrant Peisistratos got the Athenians to worship Dionysus by telling a story about the horrible things Dionysus did to the genitalia of people who tried to block his worship.
                              • Also when she's talking about Frankenstein, she refers to the making of the monster's girl as "Crimes against nature 2: Electric Boogaloo.
                              • Exaggerated and spiked with a few Shout Outs in the Trope Talk about robots:
                              • In one of the more famous examples, Oedipus and his mother Jocasta, although in their case it was Surprise Incest.
                              • Heavily implied in Paradise Lost, as the ones guarding the gates of Hell are Satan's daughter Sin and his son/grandson Death, to which Red says "Really, don't ask, it's gross."
                              • It's also referenced in the story of Hippolytus, where Phaedra tries to seduce her stepson while under the influence of Aphrodite. Red responds with retching noises.
                              • Psyche faces several trials set by Aphrodite to win back Eros while pregnant with his child.
                              • Bonny Janet rescues her lover Tam Lin from the Queen of the Fairies while pregnant. Even when the Queen of the Fairies transforms Tam Lin into various dangerous creatures and harmful objects, she never lets go.
                              • Macha won a foot race against the horses of the king of Ulster when pregnant with twins.
                              • Despite being tormented by Hera and shunned from giving birth in almost every location, Leto continues to search for a place to rest and ultimately is able to have her children in peace.
                              • Blue qualifies Benedict IX as a "meme pope" in his Pope Fights video, words he never imagine saying back to back.
                              • Red's conclusive sentence in the Atlantis video is her surprise not on the Minoan eruption, the imaginary mud shoal described by Plato, Doggerland, the fact fiction depicts Atlantis with a Greco-Roman architecture which is not accurate, but the fact that Critias and Timaeus are not just made-up names from a filler arc of Yu-Gi-Oh! and the fact that Yu-gi-oh! knows more about Atlantis than her.
                              • This trope is also responsible for Red being called Red, as she made a youtube channel with the name of this trope, people just started calling her Red as an abbreviation of the name, and it stuck even after the channel's name changed to what we now know today
                              • When discussing All Quiet on the Western Front, Red fills in the footage gaps (the adaptation she used didn't cover some parts) with pictures of kittens.
                              • In "History Summarized: Medieval China", Blue refuses to show pictures of foot-binding, so instead he shows Song Dynasty-era paintings of birds while talking about it.
                              • Red constantly pronouncing "bolgia" wrong in the "College Hell" video, much to Blue's frustration.
                              • "Hey kid, you like proving yourself?" "Do I!" pops up whenever someone sends a young hero off on a dangerous task in the hopes of getting them killed (which almost always backfires).
                              • In early episodes, Blue decided that any video pertaining to an empire will include the Star Wars crawl.
                              • Red predicting audience reaction to supposedly controversial things she is saying by depicting the comment section of the video as a fight from a kaiju movie.
                              • In "The Journey Of Ra", the running gag is snakes and how they seem to find ways to show up in every part of the underworld.
                              • "Total Eclipse of the Heart" and "Kiss From a Rose" tend to play lot in the background during romantic moments.
                              • "Careless Whisper" and "Guy Love" for moments of Ho Yay.
                              • "Paradise Lost" has Red explaining Satan's rebellion as daddy issues.
                              • "ENORMOUS F**K-YOU DRAGON!" is said whenever such a creature appears in a story that Red is summarizing.
                              • Blue occasionally explains actions surrounding Sparta's prestige simply by saying "I mean, come on, they're Sparta, you know?"
                              • Red is pretty annoyed by how utterly useless and Out of Focus the horse is in Journey to the West is, at one point grinding the video to a halt to rant at him about how, being a river dragon, he could've easily overcome the pilgrims' obstacle of getting across a troublesome river that Sha Wujing was hiding under.
                                • Another forms during the later videos, depicting a character (usually Sun Wukong) busting through a wall, with another character on the other side faced away and spitting out a drink.
                                • Red offers various suggestions for what the "H.P." stands for, including "Horrible Phobias", "Hates Progess", and "Hippopotamus".
                                • Later in the segment covering "The Colour Out of Space", the mysterious color unlike any seen on Earth! complete with Scare Chord. So many times that Red starts cutting herself off.
                                • "Place your bets" and an accompanying multiple choice set of conclusions that the Genre Savvy reader is likely to have reached well before The Reveal for a particular short story comes up three times throughout the video.
                                • Amaterasu and the Cave: Other interpretations of the myth portray Ama No Uzume's striptease with different motives and results: to pique Amaterasu's curiosity as to what all the hubbub is about and seeing herself reflected in the mirror, thus thinking they are cheering her on, or having Amaterasu hear all the uproar over Uzume's dance making her wonder why all the gods could make so merry without her divine light, and stepping out to see what could be replacing her so easily. Red offers an alternate interpretation: that Amaterasu comes out of the cave due to all the ruckus, and once she does so, she finds Uzume's striptease attractive.
                                • Atalanta: Ignoring a common interpretation, that Atalanta was distracted by the golden apples, in favor of Atalanta playing along with Hippomenes's plot and letting him win the commentary in the end credits states this to be a deliberate choice, as Red found this particular interpretation more attractive.
                                • Red points out that, as a personal preference, she prefers the interpretation that Hades and Persephone actually were in love, and the whole myth was more a case of Demeter throwing a tantrum.
                                • She uses the "sex with Poseidon in a temple" version of Medusa's origin story but leaves out the part where it was rape, presumably to avoid having Perseus and Athena murder a rape victim. It is, somewhat, corrected in the video about Hippolytus, where Poseidon responds to Theseus' demand that Hippolytus be killed for (alleged) rape by saying "Oh crap, that's a crime now? I mean, uh, sure!" and in the video on Nerites where she says that Poseidon wouldn't recognize consent if bit him in the trident. She also points out that this version of the myth was created by Ovid and doesn't appear in older stories, which instead depict Medusa as simply the gorgon daughter of sea gods with two other gorgon sisters tormenting humans without Poseidon factoring into it in any real capacity.
                                • H.P Lovecraft provided his own example due to his severe pantophobia, as he saw Dagon (a Mesopotamian grain and fertility god) as an aquatic demon.
                                • Red takes certain artistic liberties in concerning how mythological creatures are depicted, likely to make them easier to draw or less gruesome. A notable example of this is the Chimera, which is somewhat different from its depiction on ancient greek art.
                                • Andromeda is depicted as white in the Perseus video. The video's description has Red say she didn't know Andromeda was from Ethiopia. which is also incorrect, since to the Ancient Greeks, "Ethiopia" (also spelled "Aethiopia") referred to the Levant. So if anything, Andromeda was Middle Eastern.
                                • The summary of the Iliad leaves out the actual ending &mdash the return of Hector's body and subsequent funeral &mdash and skips ahead to the death of Achilles via an Achilles' Heel (which he didn't actually have in this version of the story).
                                • Aphrodite, who started the Trojan War because she refused to let a little thing like Helen already being married get in the way of shipping her with Paris. She also had a hand in making sure Hippomenes x Atalanta, Pygmalion x Galatea, and Aeneas x Dido all set sail. She emphatically does NOT ship Eros x Psyche, however.
                                • In the 2019 Valentine's Day video focusing on her, a new aspect of her characterization, Aphrodite Areia, raises the subtle implication that provoking a war was her intention in the first place, or at least not something she was opposed to.
                                • Victor Frankenstein's mother ships him with his foster sister Elizabeth, and pushes them together on her deathbed.
                                • Red, Blue, and Cyan were this ecstatically when Thanatos showed up. They spent ten minutes gushing about him and Zagreus.
                                • If you're gender non-binary then you have the gift of prophecy, Ishtar loves you, and the queen of Hell thinks you're hot.
                                • According to Stranger in a Strange Land You shouldn't bother with finding answers to the whys and hows of life, your only priority is to have interplanetary, heterosexual sex until you get superpowers.
                                • In "Dante's Inferno", those who commit suicide go to Hell and are turned into trees. A demon rips their leaves off just to make them suffer further.
                                • Subverted with Ajax. When the titular hero commits suicide over being tricked by Odysseus and Athena, two of his former friends demand he be dishonored and denied a proper burial. Odysseus insists Ajax be buried. While narrating this story, Blue openly shows contempt for the two people who oppose burying Ajax.
                                • The Beowulf video has a quick one to the film, where the infamous "naked golden Angelina Jolie" interpretation of Grendel's Mother appears for about half a second, before being stomped into a gold puddle by the actual Grendel's Mother.
                                • The Jorogumo video takes some time to criticize Middle-earth: Shadow of War's depiction of Shelob, and specifically her ability to turn into an attractive human woman.
                                • Osiris merrily climbs into his own coffin (well, sarcophagus).
                                • Yes, Arachne. Using your tapestry to graphically depict many of Zeus and Poseidon's sexual conquests and showing said tapestry to Athena is such a good idea.
                                • Not only did Theseus and Pirithous think they would be able to take Hades wife Persephone so Pirithous could marry her, but also that it would be a good idea to accept Hades's invitation when they got to the underworld.
                                • She also notes that if the villains do have The Power of Friendship, it will likely make them much more dangerous, due to the "you hurt my friend"-induced Unstoppable Rage.
                                • In the Legends Summarized: King Arthur, Mordred has the speech bubble "Aunt Guinevere, have you heard the phrase 'Incest is Wincest?'" when he usurps Arthur's throne and tries to marry Guinevere.
                                • When Paradiso informs her that children used to have a Get Into Heaven Free-card, but post-Jesus, they need to be baptized, or else they're thrown into Limbo, aka the first circle of Hell.
                                • Red blames this trope for the origins of the "El Dorado" legend To the indigenous South Americans who lived before the Spanish conquistadors arrived, gold was beautiful enough to make jewelry and sculptures, but had little actual value in their barter-based economy. To the conquistadors, gold was symbolic of wealth, fame and everything their society valued, and the sight of natives decked out in gold jewelry could have convinced them that there was an abundance of it somewhere in the New World.
                                • The same episode also mentions how the conquistadors became so obsessed with the pursuit of gold that they completely overlooked the hauls of rarer and more valuable platinum they were finding, considering it a poor imitation of silver and dumping most of what they found of it into the ocean.
                                • H.P Lovecraft was actually homeschooled and had poor math skills. This was explained under the erroneous belief that he "had too delicate a constitution for math". Red (a college graduate with a degree in Math) is baffled by this excuse and mocks it whenever she notices a mathematical flaw in his works.
                                • A non-writing example involves "El Dorado", as the conquistadors didn't understand why the natives had so little value in gold and came to the conclusion of the natives having so much of it that it became trivial. A funnier example involves their treatment of platinum, as no conquistador had actually seen platinum before and they dismissed it as being "unripe silver" and having less value than gold. When people used platinum as counterfeit gold, the government responded by dumping most of their supply of it in the ocean without ever learning of its rarity and true value.
                                • In El Dorado, the conquistadors thought the abundance of gold meant that the Muisca people had so much of it they used gold to make homes. When in actuality, gold had very little to no monetary value to the Muisca people since it wasn't of any use to them since they could only use it for decorative purposes.
                                • Red also discusses how Paedophilia wasn't as evil in the past as it is now. To the Greeks, Pederasty was seen as a rite of passage that turned boys into men. Red also states that homosexuality was seen as a show of manliness in Greece, unlike in the modern age where the LGBT are still growing in public acceptance (as in, the LGBT has less rights in one country but more rights in another).

                                Peoples settled in what is now Texas thousands of years before European explorers arrived in North America. Some American Indian oral histories recount how their ancestors traveled to the area by water or land. A large amount of stone artifacts made at least 16,000 years ago have been found in Central Texas. For many years, scientists believed that the first Americans came from Asia 13,000 years ago. The discovery of these artifacts suggests that humans came to the Americas much earlier.

                                Pre-Cloves Projectile Point.
                                Image courtesy Gault School of Archaeological Research, San Marcos, Texas

                                Peoples who lived in the area at the end of the Ice Age are referred to as the “Clovis” people by archaeologists. These people shared the land with mammoths, mastodons, and other Ice Age animals. They traveled long distances to hunt these animals with spears. They also used projectile points and other tools made of Alibates flint. Their stone tools have been found more than 300 miles from the stone's source.

                                Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                The “Folsom” people lived a hunter-gather lifestyle very similar to the Clovis people. With the mammoth and many other big game species from the Ice Age extinct, the Folsom people followed large herds of bison that were larger than the bison of today. They hunted with a weapon called the atlatl and dart. This weapon system consisted of two parts: a "throwing stick" and a dart which looks similar to an arrow but was much longer.

                                Prehistoric hunters used atlatls to hurl these darts at their prey.
                                Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                The “Archaic” people that called the present-day Texas Panhandle home lived in an environment that was rich in various plants and animals. They were slowly transitioning from being nomadic hunter-gatherers to farmers. They gathered various types of plant materials: seeds, roots, berries, and anything else that was edible. They would grind the seed into meal using tools called a “mano and matate” made out of sandstone or dolomite.

                                Striations, stains, and polish cover this limestone tool that may have been used for a variety of purposes, including grinding.
                                Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                More than 5000 years ago in present-day Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, people began to grow corn, beans, and squash. The switch from a nomadic hunter-gatherer life style to horticulture contributed to more reliable food sources and settled lifestyles. Populations grew and cultures flourished.

                                Varieties of maize found near Cuscu and Machu Pichu at Salineras de Maras on the Inca Sacred Valley in Peru, June 2007.
                                Image credit Fabio de Oliveira Freitas, Courtesy Smithsonian Institute

                                "Rock art" including pictographs (painted images) and petroglyphs (carved, or incised images) was made by people at least 4,500 years ago throughout the Lower Pecos region of present-day Texas. The symbols in the “White Shaman” mural depict a creation story that can still be interpreted today by Huichol Indians in Mexico.

                                Panther Cave Rock Art.
                                Image Courtesy Shumla Archaeological Research and Education Center. Site jointly owned by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the National Park Service

                                Beginning at least 2,000 years ago in a Hueco Mountains’ canyon near El Paso, ancient Puebloans held ceremonies where they placed offerings in a cave. The Pueblo people believed that caves were portals to a watery underworld. Among the artifacts found in Ceremonial Cave were a finely crafted bracelet and pendants made of shells from coastal areas hundreds of miles away. These artifacts are evidence of the vast trade routes that existed between diverse communities.

                                Turquoise armband, 700–1450 CE.
                                Image courtesy Texas Archeological Research Lab, The University of Texas at Austin

                                The bow and arrow replaced the atlatl around 700 C.E. The new technology spread across much of North America around this time. Its precise origin is unknown, but it may have been brought into the region by new migrants. The bow was lighter and required fewer resources to make. The arrow was much more lethal than a spear because of its speed, silence, and accuracy.

                                Scallorn Points.
                                Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                It is said that Texas owes its name to the Caddo. "Tejas" is a Spanish spelling of the Caddo word that means "those who are friends." Archaeological evidence in the form of fine ceramic pottery indicates that Caddo communities existed in the area as early as 800 C.E. The agriculture-based Caddoes lived in villages and large fortified towns surrounding large plazas with earthen mounds. Atop of the mounds were temples, council houses, and the houses of the tribe’s elites.

                                Large settlements with mound centers like this existed up and down the Mississippi River and were interconnected through trade. The largest of these fortified communities was Cahokia, located near present-day St Louis, MO. One of Texas's best examples of a Caddo mound is located in present-day Cherokee County.

                                Caddo Pot made by Jeri Redcorn, Caddo

                                The “Antelope Creek” people lived in the present-day Texas panhandle between 1150 and 1450. They lived in pueblo like villages where they practiced horticulture and bison hunting. Over a period of 300 years, they dug hundreds of quarries for better flint to make stone tools. Pottery fragments found at Antelope Creek sites provide evidence of extensive trade. The Antelope Creek people left the area abruptly around 1450 AD, perhaps because of drought conditions, disease, or the arrival of hostile Apaches to the area.

                                Antelope Creek Pottery Sherds.
                                Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                Historians believe that the Apache moved down from their native territory in Canada and into North America sometime between 1000 and 1400. They belong to the southern branch of the Athabascan group, whose languages constitute a large family, with speakers in Alaska, western Canada, and the American Southwest.

                                By the 1600s two groups settled in Texas — the Lipan Apache and the Mescalero. The Mescalero eventually moved on to present-day New Mexico. The arrival of the Apache would begin to alter the trade and territorial claims among the diverse tribes who had settled the area before them.

                                Lipanes, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

                                On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed west from Palos, Spain, to explore a new route to Asia. On October 12, he reached the Bahamas. Six months later, he returned to Spain with gold, cotton, American Indian handicrafts, exotic parrots, and other strange beasts. His tales of the native peoples, land, and resources in North America ignited the era of Spanish colonization.

                                Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda is credited with being the first European to explore and map the Gulf of Mexico. He set out with four ships and 270 men to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. There are few records detailing his exploration, although one Spanish document does indicate that he sailed around the coast of Florida, into the Gulf of Mexico, and up a river dotted with palm trees and the villages of native peoples. Earlier interpretations of his voyage identified this river as the Rio Grande, but later data shows that it was probably the Soto la Marina, located in Mexico.

                                Spanish conquests of the Americas introduced the first enslaved Africans to the region. Among Hernán Cortés’s forces in his siege of Tenochtitlan in 1521 were six Black men, including African born Juan Garrido. Garrido was enslaved in the Caribbean as early as 1503. He participated in the founding of New Spain as a free man and is recognized as the first person to grow wheat in New Spain. While in Mexico City, he established a family and continued to serve with Spanish forces.

                                A painting of Garrido with Hernan Cortés, Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana e islas de la tierra firme, Diego Duran, 1579. Image courtesy of Biblioteca Nacional de Espana

                                In 1527, with five ships, 600 men, and a supply of horses, Pánfilo de Narváez set out for Florida to claim gold and glory for the Spanish empire. His trip seemed doomed from the beginning. Many of his men died, deserted, or were killed by the American Indians whose people and villages the expedition attacked and pillaged. In an effort to escape, Narváez and the remaining members of the expedition set sail in flimsy rafts that were eventually washed up on the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston. Narvárez drowned on the voyage, but one of the few survivors, conquistador Cabeza de Vaca, wrote detailed memoirs that became the earliest European descriptions of Texas and its people.

                                Álvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, one of four survivors of the failed Narváez expedition, washed up on the beach of a Texas Gulf Coast island he named "Malhado," which means "misfortune." The name was apt, because for the next several years, Cabeza de Vaca lived one harrowing moment to another as a captive slave of various Texas American Indians. He kept a detailed diary which has become an invaluable primary source describing the life and peoples of early Texas. In 1536, Spanish soldiers returned Cabeza de Vaca to Mexico City. He eventually made his way back to Spain where he published his memoirs, The Narrative of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, in 1542.

                                The Karankawa first encountered Europeans when Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca washed up on a Galveston beach in 1528. This encounter, which Cabeza de Vaca wrote about in his diary, is the first recorded meeting of Europeans and Texas American Indians. The Karankawa were several bands of coastal people with a shared language and culture who inhabited the Gulf Coast of Texas from Galveston Bay southwestward to Corpus Christi Bay.

                                Karankawa, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

                                Estevanico was an enslaved African born Mustafa Zemmouri around 1501. He accompanied Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1528 on a multi-year expedition through present-day Texas. On this expedition he gained great knowledge of the languages spoken by American Indians in the area. In 1539, he was ordered by the Spanish Viceroy to be part of a subsequent expedition. On this expedition he was ultimately killed by Zuni Indians at the Hawiku Pueblo in present-day New Mexico.

                                Painting of Estavanico. Image courtesy Granger Historical Images

                                Bartolomé de las Casas was the first priest to be ordained in the Americas. Conscience-stricken by the abuse of American Indians at the hands of Spanish conquistadors, he crusaded on the native peoples' behalf for over five decades. In 1536, de las Casas participated in a debate in Oaxaca, Mexico, where he argued for the American Indians' right to be treated as individuals with dignity and against the Spanish efforts to convert native peoples to both the Catholic faith and the Spanish culture. His blistering work in 1542, A Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians, convinced King Charles V to outlaw the conversion practices, but riots among land holders in New Spain (Mexico) convinced authorities not to make any changes in their treatment of American Indians.

                                Finding gold was one objective of Spanish colonization in North America. Following the report of an explorer who claimed to have seen a gold city in the desert, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado organized an expedition that traveled through the Texas Panhandle. Various historical accounts describe the soldiers' astonishment at the Texas landscape, including Palo Duro Canyon, and the huge, hump-backed cows (buffalo) that roamed the grasslands. Coronado never found any gold in the Panhandle, and the expedition returned to Mexico in 1542.

                                Hernando de Soto led an exploration of the Gulf Coast area from 1539 until his death in present-day Arkansas in 1542. This expedition marked the first European crossing of the Mississippi River. After de Soto's death, Luis de Moscoso led the explorers into East Texas, home of the powerful Caddo Indians, in an attempt to find an overland route back to New Spain (Mexico). Opinions differ as to the exact route the Moscoso expedition took through Texas, but recent scholarship suggests that they traveled south from East Texas toward present-day Nacogdoches and then into the Hill Country before turning back toward the Mississippi River in Arkansas.

                                Oil springs and tar pits were known to the Texas Indians. They used the oozings to treat rheumatism and skin diseases. Oil was also seen by the Spanish explorers as early as July 1543, when members of the De Soto expedition saw oil floating in the water near Sabine Pass and used it to caulk their boats. Later, settlers used surface oil for axel grease and for lighting and fuel.

                                Image courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey.

                                In November, 1552, fifty-four vessels sailed from Spain under the command of Captain-General Bartolomé Carreño. The ships, including six armed vessels, carried cargo and were headed to various parts of the world including New Spain (Mexico) and the Indies. On April 29, 1554, three ships were wrecked in a storm on Padre Island, near present-day Port Mansfield. In the 1960s and 1970s, excavation efforts retrieved thousands of artifacts such as cannons, silver coins, gold bullion, astrolabes, and tools from the wreckage of the San Esteban and the Espiritu Santo. The third sunken ship, the Santa Maria de Yclar, was destroyed during ship channel construction in the 1950s.

                                The Spanish missionary system was intended to convert American Indians to Christianity and teach them how to live according to Spanish ways. Missionaries often accompanied conquistadors on their explorations in North America. The first missionaries passed through far west Texas in 1581 on their way to the pueblos of New Mexico.

                                Though unsuccessful in establishing a colony among the Pueblo people, Spanish conquistador Antonio de Espejo left a valuable account of his encounters with the Jumano people of Texas's Big Bend area in 1582 to 1583. The Jumano were trading partners of the Spanish for almost two centuries before famine and war sent their population into a steep decline.

                                After a difficult march through present-day New Mexico and Texas, conquistador Juan de Oñate and hundreds of settlers finally reached the Rio Grande in April. They were so grateful to have survived the journey that they held what some believe was the first "thanksgiving" feast in what would become the United States. During this stop, Oñate officially claimed all the land drained by the Rio Grande as Spanish territory. With this act, the foundation was laid for two centuries of Spanish control of Texas and the American southwest.

                                Spanish conquistadors first crossed Texas in search of gold in New Mexico. By 1610, the Spanish had established a capital at Santa Fe. Their primary goals were to convert the American Indians to Christianity and to teach them to live according to Spanish culture. The Spanish crown commissioned Franciscan friars to establish missions. From the pueblos of New Mexico, a few priests began to venture into West Texas.

                                Almost 50 years after their first encounter, the Jumano were revisited by the Spanish in 1629. This would mark the beginning of their relations with the Spanish. The Jumano lands stretched from northern Mexico to eastern New Mexico to West Texas. Some Jumano lived nomadic lifestyles, while others lived in more permanent houses built of reeds or sticks or of masonry, like the pueblos of New Mexico. The Jumano were renowned for their trading and language skills. In time, these expert traders helped establish trade routes as well as diplomatic relationships among American Indians, the Spanish, and the French.

                                Jumano, Drawing by Frank Weir.
                                Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                María de Jesús de Agreda was a nun who lived in Spain and had visions of sharing Christianity with people living in distant lands. Her visions were regarded as religious miracles. She was known as the "Woman in Blue" because of her blue Franciscan clothing. 17th century Spanish explorers describe the Jumano as asking for religious instruction to continue the teachings they had received during "visits" from the Woman in Blue. There is no evidence that Sister María left her convent in Spain to visit the Jumano in west Texas, which adds to the mystery of how the Jumano acquired their knowledge of Christianity before the Spanish arrived in Texas.

                                Fray Juan de Salas and Fray Diego León were the first Spanish missionaries in Texas. In 1629, they traveled to evangelize the Jumanos. In 1632, Juan de Salas and Juan de Ortega established a mission near present-day San Angelo. They were unable to supply or defend the outpost, and after six months, they were forced to abandon the mission.This arrow point is believed to be of Jumano origin.

                                Spanish shipwreck survivors under the leadership of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca were the first Europeans to visit "La Junta de Rios," the junction of the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos, near present-day Presidio. Franciscans traveling through La Junta in 1581 performed the first Catholic mass in Texas. In 1670, Franciscans established a mission, but they were expelled after just two years.

                                Led by the religious leader Po’pay from the Pueblo of Ohkay Owingeh, Pueblo people revolted against the Spanish colonists and drove them out of present-day New Mexico. After the revolt, Pueblo people began trading the horses they had taken control of. The acquisition of horses, and the ability to travel longer distances more easily, would transform the territorial politics between tribes throughout America.

                                "Po'pay" by Artist Cliff Fragua, 2005.
                                Image courtesy Architect of the Capitol.

                                In 1680, the Pueblo people rose up, killed 400 Spanish colonizers, and drove the remaining 2,000 Spanish out of New Mexico. The village of El Paso became the base of Spanish operations for the next 12 years. During this time, the Franciscans established the first successful missions in the El Paso area: Corpus Christi de Isleta, Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Concepción de Socorro, and San Antonio de Senecú.

                                The Mayeye, a Tonkawa Tribe, first encountered La Salle and his French colonists in 1687. The Tonkawa belonged to the Tonkawan linguistic family that was once composed of a number of small sub-tribes that lived in present-day Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The word "tonkawa" is a Waco term meaning "they all stay together." In the years to come the Tonkawa would have changing relationships with the Spanish and the French.

                                Tancahues, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

                                In 1683 and 1684, the people of La Junta (near present-day Presidio) petitioned for missionaries to return to their area. Franciscans established two missions, El Apóstol Santiago on Alamito Creek and La Navidad en los Cruces along the Rio Grande. By 1688, these missions were abandoned.

                                The Spanish began making entradas into Texas in the 1690s. They intended to explore and expand into the far reaches of Spanish territory in order to buffer any encroachment from the French. From 1709 to 1722, the Spanish led roughly seven expeditions from Mexico to Texas. These early explorers brought cattle, sheep, and goats to the Texas frontier.

                                By 1690, the Spanish realized the need to defend Texas against the French and blazed a network of trails from Mexico City to Louisiana. Missionaries traveled to East Texas along El Camino Real (the King's Highway). The missions of San Francisco de los Tejas and Santísimo Nombre de María were established along the Neches River. By 1693, both missions were abandoned.

                                Circa 1700 In 1706 Spanish officials in New Mexico documented the presence of numerous Comanches on the northeastern frontier of that province. As the Comanches moved south, they came into conflict with tribes already living on the South Plains, particularly the Apaches, who had dominated the region before the arrival of the Comanches. The Apaches were forced south by the Comanche and the two became mortal enemies.

                                Plains Indian Girl with Melon, 1851–1857. By Friedrich Richard Petri.
                                Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

                                From 1700 to 1713, Spain was involved in a European war, and New Spain (Texas) was not a priority. After the war, Franciscans returned to the Presidio area and established two missions, San Cristóbal and Santa María la Redonda de los Cibolos. Missionaries occupied the sites sporadically until the end of the Spanish era in Texas.

                                On May 1, 1718, the Spanish established a mission-presidio complex approximately midway between the Rio Grande Valley and the missions of East Texas. This was the founding of the city of San Antonio, the most significant Texas settlement of the Spanish era. The mission of San Antonio de Valero, later known as the Alamo, was moved to its present location in 1724.

                                The Franciscans turned new attention to East Texas beginning in 1716. They established a mission along the Neches River and built three additional missions in Nacogdoches County. In 1719, French troops attacked a nearby Louisiana mission in an event known to history as the Chicken War because it was little more than a raid on a henhouse. Nonetheless, the Spanish withdrew from East Texas for two years.

                                The Spanish brought cattle to New Spain soon after they began colonization in the 1500s. The first cattle arrived in Texas in the 1690s. By the 1730s, missionaries were operating cattle ranches around San Antonio and Goliad. Within a few decades, individual ranchers like Martin de León began to build large operations. De León had some 5,000 cattle by 1816.

                                Ranching in Texas originated near San Antonio and Goliad in the 1730s. As the missions continued to fade into decline, individual ranchers became prominent due to generous land grants received from the Spanish Crown. One large ranch resulted from the Cavazos land grant, which was a sprawling 4,605 acres.

                                The East Texas missions were difficult to supply, staff, and defend, and most lasted only a few years. In 1730, three missions were relocated from East Texas to the site of present-day Austin. The following year, the missions were moved further south to San Antonio.

                                The first reference to the Comanche in present-day Texas comes in 1743, when a small scouting band appeared in San Antonio looking for their enemies, the Lipan Apache. The Comanches were to become the most dominant people in the area. The name "Comanche" comes from an Ute word that means "enemy." They refer to themselves as the "Nʉmʉnʉʉ" or the "people." The Comanche were originally a Great Plains hunter-gatherer group, but after acquiring horses, they expanded their territory. They became horse experts and migrated into Texas in order to hunt bison and capture the wild horses that roamed the land. They eventually claimed vast areas of north, central, and west Texas as part of "Comancheria."

                                Comanche Feats of Horsemanship, 1834–1835, by George Catlin.
                                Image courtesy Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr., 1985.66.487

                                Ever since the Spanish arrived in the San Antonio area, the Lipan Apache have been at war with them. When the enemy Comanche arrived to the area, the Apache agreed to a peace treaty with the Spanish. The two buried a hatchet in the ground in a ceremony in San Antonio. This led the Spanish to move forward with plans to build missions in Apache territory.

                                Spontoon Tomahawk
                                Image courtesy of Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas

                                Originally from the area of present-day Kansas, a band of Wichitas moved from Oklahoma and settled along the Red River near present-day Nocona, Texas. They would live there until about 1810, when they gradually returned to present-day Oklahoma. The Wichita called themselves Kitikiti'sh, meaning "raccoon eyes," because the designs of tattoos around the men's eyes resembled the eyes of the raccoon. They lived in villages of dome-shaped grass houses. They farmed extensive fields of corn, tobacco, and melons along the streams where they made their homes and seasonally left their villages for annual hunts.

                                Wichita paint bag, 1800s.
                                Courtesy of The Field Museum, Cat. No. 59357

                                Once the Spanish formed an alliance with the Apaches, expansion of ranching lands became safer. Missions tended to have the best land, which put them in direct competition with the ranchers. Conflicts developed, and lawsuits between missions and ranchers became common at this time.

                                In 1757, the Spanish established Santa Cruz de San Sabá as a mission to the Apache. The Spanish also hoped to form an alliance with the Apache against the Comanche and allied northern tribes. In March of 1758, over 2,000 Comanche and allied norther tribes staged a massive attack, burning down the mission and killing all but one of the missionaries.

                                In response to the destruction of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá, forces of 600 Spanish soldiers attacked the Taovaya (Wichita) village on the Red River. With horses and French weapons, the Wichita were a stronger force than the Spanish. The Spanish were defeated and forced to retreat.

                                French musket, 1700s.
                                Image courtesy Red McCombs Collection, Georgetown

                                The Spanish negotiated a treaty with the Comanche, who agreed not to make war on missionized Apaches. Continued conflicts with Apaches made it impossible for Comanches to keep their promise. This ultimately led Spanish officials to advocate for breaking their alliance with the Apache in favor of a Spanish-Comanche alliance aimed at subduing the Apaches.

                                Comanches, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

                                As a result of British colonial expansion from the east, the Alabama and Coushatta Tribes began to migrate from what is now Alabama to the area of Big Thicket in present-day Texas. By 1780 they had moved across the Sabine River into Spanish Texas.

                                Cutchates, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

                                With the help of the French Governor of Natchitoches, Spain made treaties with Caddo, Wichita, and Tonkawa tribes. One year later, also with the help of a Frenchman, Spain made a treaty at San Antonio with a Comanche band. Other bands, however, continued to raid Spanish settlements.

                                Comanche War Bonnet, 1946–1970.
                                Image courtesy Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon

                                Since they first arrived to the Americas in the early 1500s, European diseases decimated diverse indigenous communities. In 1775 a smallpox epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of Europeans and Native peoples in North America. The virus was carried by people along the trade routes from Mexico City and moved north to Comancheria and farther north to the Shoshone. An estimated 90% of the American Indian population died from epidemics. The deadly diseases greatly shifted the balance of power between American Indians and Europeans.

                                Detail of Cabello to Croix, reporting smallpox epidemic, 1780.
                                Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

                                This painting by Francisco Clapera depicts a Spanish father and African mother playing with their son in colonial Mexico. This image exemplifies the Casta system established in Spanish territory by the late 16th century. The Casta system classified any genetic connection with Black Africans as a “stain” on the purity of Spanish blood. This created the classifications of Mulatos (children of Spaniards and Africans) and Mestizos (children of Spaniards and American Indians). Under Spanish law, marriage between the races was legal as long as the individuals were Catholic. It was common in the Spanish colonies for people from different racial groups to intermarry and have families.

                                Francisco Clapera, De Espanol, y Negra, Mulato, circa 1775 Denver Art Museum Collection: Gift of the Collection of Frederick and Jan Mayer, 2011.428.4 Image courtesy of the Denver Art Museum

                                According to a newly enacted law, all wild animals and unbranded livestock were the property of the Spanish treasury. The law also established the "Mustang Fund" which imposed a tax on ranchers for all the branded livestock they rounded up.

                                El Mocho, a Lipan Apache who as a child was captured and adopted by the Tonkawa, became a chief of the Tonkawa after a small pox epidemic killed most of the tribe’s elders. Hoping to free his people from Spanish control, he formed a loose confederacy of groups that included the Tonkawas, the Lipan Apaches, and some Comanches and Caddos.

                                Hand-colored stone lithograph of a West Lipan Apache warrior sitting astride a horse and carrying a rifle from Emory's United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, Washington, 1857.
                                Image courtesy Star of the Republic Museum

                                Trade between Texas and Louisiana had been prohibited early in the 18th century. That ban was lifted in 1779. Ranching became more profitable as Spanish ranchers were able to drive their cattle along the Old San Antonio Road into the French territory of Louisiana. New Orleans soon became a major new market for ranchers.

                                Shortly after the trade ban was lifted in 1779, the Spanish colonial government reversed their decision because of the surge of smuggling. Since trade with Louisiana was hugely profitable, however, illicit trade continued. In a rare moment of unity, ranchers and missionaries became allies in their opposition to Spain's regulation of trade.

                                The Comanche accepted a peace deal with the Spanish, allowing Spaniards to travel through their lands. In exchange, Spain offered to help the Comanche in their war with the Apache. Peace between the Spanish and Comanche lasted 30 years. The Comanches were to become the dominate force in the area, both in trade and warfare.

                                Cabello to Rengel, reporting on visit made to Béxar by Comanche captain to confirm peace treaty, 1785.
                                Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

                                In 1785, rancher Juan José Flores submitted a document to the Spanish government in Mexico. Known as the San Fernando Memorial, the document argued that unbranded livestock belonged to ranchers since those animals were descended from the ranchers' animals. The government agreed and allowed the ranchers to collect and brand the animals.

                                Due to the San Fernando Memorial ruling, ranchers and missionaries planned a great round-up in 1787. La Bahia was the only mission to actually participate. As many as 7,000 cattle were captured and branded. This event marked a shift in the balance of power between ranchers and missionaries.

                                By 1795, ranchers were no longer required to pay the Mustang Fund taxes and were given one tax-free year to round up and brand wild livestock. This change in policy resulted in the increased transportation of cattle to markets in Louisiana and northern Mexico where they were sold for their tallow, hides, and meat.

                                Cattle herds became severely depleted because of continual predator attacks as well as the increased market demands for cattle products. The cattle industry declined and ranchers turned their money-making efforts toward a new livestock source— wild mustangs.

                                Cherokees were first reported in Texas in 1807, when a small band established a village on the Red River. American expansion had forced them to the west. They were an agricultural people whose ancestral lands covered much of the southern Appalachian highlands, an area that included parts of Virginia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama.

                                In the summer of that year, a delegation of Cherokees, Pascagoulas, Chickasaws, and Shawnees sought permission from Spanish officials in Nacogdoches to settle members of their tribes in that province. The request was approved by Spanish authorities, who intended to use the displaced tribes as a buffer against American expansion.

                                "Cunne Shote, Cherokee Chief," by Francis Parsons, 1751-1775. Gift of the Thomas Gilcrease Foundation, 1955. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

                                The Transatlantic Slave Trade involved the forced migration of millions of enslaved African peoples to the Americas throughout the 16th to 19th centuries. Although it was banned by Britain and the U.S. in 1808, it did not decrease the role of slavery throughout the South. The widespread trade of enslaved peoples within the South continued, aided by the self-sustaining population of children born into slavery.

                                Diagram of a slave ship, 1787. Image courtesy British Library, London, England

                                In 1820, Moses Austin traveled to San Antonio and negotiated permission to settle 300 Anglo American families in Texas, but he died before his plans could be realized. Moses' son, Stephen F. Austin, traveled to Texas to renegotiate his father's grant and to scout land near Brazoria. In December 1821, the younger Austin began bringing the settlers to their new home.

                                Image courtesy of Star of the Republic of Texas Museum.

                                In search of new opportunities in the unsettled territory of Tejas, Moses Austin hoped to bring 300 families to the Mexican province in 1820. With the help of Baron de Bastrop, Austin received approval from the Spanish governor to bring settlers into Tejas. Moses Austin died in 1821, however, and his son, Stephen F. Austin, inherited the land grant for 300 families. Austin settled the land near the Brazos and Colorado in 1824.

                                The Mexican territory of Tejas was opened to settlers on the conditions that they become Mexican citizens, learn Spanish and adopt the Catholic faith. Moses Austin, a founder of America's lead industry, obtained government permission to bring colonists to the territory. He died before the "Texas Venture" began and his son, Stephen, led 300 families on the journey to establish new colonies along the Brazos, Colorado and San Bernard Rivers.

                                Stephen F. Austin established a settlement of Anglo Americans who found the ranching system in Texas in decline. The ranching knowledge and outstanding roping skills of vaqueros (Mexican cowboys) helped revive and rebuild the flagging ranching industry.

                                As the people of Mexico began to feel exploited by Spanish colonialism, a series of revolts began in 1801. On September 27, 1821, the Spanish signed a treaty recognizing Mexico's independence. Since Moses Austin had been granted permission by Spain to bring American families to Texas, his son Stephen had to renegotiate the land grant and settlements with the new Mexican government.

                                In 1822 Cherokee Chief Bowl sent diplomatic chief Richard Fields to Mexico to negotiate with the Mexican government for a grant to land occupied by Cherokees in East Texas. After two years of waiting to receive a grant, Richard Fields tried to unite diverse tribes in Texas into an alliance and began to encourage other displaced tribes to settle in Texas.

                                Chief Bowl, Courtesy Jenkins Company.
                                Image courtesy Prints and Photographs Collection, Texas State Library and Archives Commission. #1/102-661

                                The Mexican government advised Stephen F. Austin that it would not provide resources to administer or defend the fledgling Tejas colonies. Austin hired ten men to "act as rangers for the common defense" against Indian raids. With that, the legend of the Texas Rangers began.

                                Mexico established rules for settling colonies in 1824. During this time, they also joined Coahuila and Texas, forming a unified Mexican state "Coahuila y Tejas." With the passage of the Coahuila-Texas colonization law, Mexico encouraged foreign settlers to buy land in the territory with a $30 down payment, without the requirement of paying taxes for ten years after that.

                                Mexico encouraged Anglo Americans to settle the sparsely-populated Texas territory, both to increase ranching and commerce and to defend against American Indians and aggressive European powers. On March 24, 1825, the Mexican Congress passed colonization laws that stipulated that settlers practice Christianity and take loyalty oaths to the Mexican and state constitutions in order to become citizens.

                                In 1825, Haden Edwards received a land grant in east Texas for 800 settlers. A dispute for leadership soon broke out in Edwards' colony. He and his allies formed an alliance with the Cherokees and declared the independent republic of Fredonia. Mexican troops restored order, but the incident led Mexico to severely restrict further immigration into Texas from the United States and Europe, a bitter pill for the majority of colonists who had remained peaceable.

                                Settlers weren't ready to embrace their new Mexican identity upon moving into the country. Largely, they didn't see themselves as Mexican nationals and, in fact, referred to themselves as "Texians." Additionally, many of Austin's settlers came from the American south who brought enslaved African Americans with them, despite Mexico's laws prohibiting slavery. Because of the lack of allegiance to the nation, Mexican officials feared they would lose control of the state. They began encouraging more migration from Mexicans into the area.

                                Issued by President Vincente R. Guerrero on September 15, 1829, this decree abolished slavery throughout the Republic of Mexico. The news of the decree alarmed Anglo settlers in Texas, who petitioned Guerrero to exempt Texas from the law. The decree was never put into operation, but it made many Anglo settlers worry that their interests were not protected, planting the seeds of revolution.

                                Decree abolishing slavery in Mexico in 1829. Image courtesy of Newton Gresham Library, Sam Houston State University.

                                On September 25, 1829, the first issue of the Texas Gazette was published in San Felipe de Austin. Published until 1832, Texas' first newspaper kept settlers informed of news by providing English translations of Mexican government laws and decrees.

                                Image courtesy of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin

                                Anglo settlers who arrived in Texas in the 1830s brought with them the skills for farming, but many were enticed by cattle ranching instead. In 1837, Charles Morgan established the first steamship line in Texas to transport Texas cattle from the Gulf of Mexico to markets in New Orleans and the West Indies.

                                Fearing the possibility of losing control of Texas, Mexico banned further immigration from the United States on April 6, 1830. They encouraged immigration from Mexico and European countries, placed more restrictions on slavery, and increased military presence in the region. This initiative angered Texans, who pushed for statehood and self-rule.

                                On April 6, 1830, the Mexican government passed several new laws that were very unpopular with the Anglo American settlers. These laws increased the presence of the Mexican military, implemented new taxes, forbade the settlers from bringing more slaves into Texas, and banned new immigration from the United States. The grievances that would lead to the Texas Revolution had begun to accumulate.

                                Image courtesy of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin.

                                The Mexican army established a garrison at Anahuac to collect tariffs, end smuggling, and enforce the ban on immigration from the United States. Tensions rose to a boil when the fort's commander took in several runaway slaves. The unrest culminated at nearby Velasco when a group of settlers tried to take a cannon from a Mexican fort. At least ten Texans and five Mexican soldiers died in the fighting.

                                General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led a successful revolt against President Bustamante. Texans were initially okay with this development because of Santa Anna's support for the Constitution of 1824, which was very similar to the U.S. Constitution. However, Santa Anna nullified the 1824 Constitution in favor of a more centralized government and was no longer supportive of Texas self-rule.

                                At the Convention of 1833, 56 Texas delegates drafted a resolution requesting that Mexico roll back many of the changes in Mexican law that took place in 1830. Texans wanted Mexico to allow immigration from the U.S., provide more protection from native peoples, exempt Texans from anti-slavery laws, improve the mail service, and separate Texas from Coahuila. Stephen F. Austin, along with Dr. James B. Miller, presented the proposals to Santa Anna. Austin was imprisoned in Mexico City on suspicion of inciting insurrection. Eventually, the Mexican government repealed the Law of 1830, but would not grant statehood to Texas. Amidst the conflict, thousands upon thousands of Americans were immigrating to Texas.

                                "War is declared." So wrote Stephen F. Austin after the Battle of Gonzales, when Mexican authorities tried to seize the town's cannon and were met with the now-famous battle cry, "Come and take it!" After Gonzales, the unrest in Texas spiraled out of control. Santa Anna's determination to quell the rebellion would end with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836 and Texas' independence.

                                Image courtesy of Daniel Mayer, Creative Commons

                                Tension grew between Texas and Mexico. Texans, with a growing influx of American settlers, pushed for separate statehood, resulting in many minor skirmishes with Mexico. The first notable battle of the Texas Revolution occurred when Texans at Gonzales refused to return a small cannon lent to them by Mexican authorities. On October 2, Colonel John H. Moore and his company famously rolled out the cannon under a flag that read, “Come and Take It.” The short fight that resulted sparked the beginning of the Revolution. Mexicans retreated, but the battle had just begun.

                                The provisional Texas government passed a resolution officially creating a corps of over 50 rangers. These Rangers engaged in many skirmishes with American Indians and often joined with the Texian Army in fighting against Mexican troops in what became the opening battles of the Texas Revolution.

                                A large force of mostly Comanches attacked a private fort built by Silas and James Parker near the upper Navasota River. In the attack Silas and two women were killed. His daughter Cynthia Ann (9), son John (6), and three others were taken by the Comanche. In time Cynthia Ann Parker was fully adopted by the Comanche, eventually becoming a wife of Chief Peta Nocona and the mother of Chief Quanah Parker.

                                "Cynthia Ann Parker" by William Bridgers, 1861.
                                Image courtesy DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University

                                Written in 1836, the Constitution of the Republic of Texas protected slavery in the new nation. The General Provisions of the Constitution forbade any slave owner from freeing enslaved people without the consent of Congress and forbade Congress from making any law that restricted the slave trade or emancipated the enslaved. This solidified the importance of slavery in Texas from its founding.

                                Draft of the Republic of Texas Constitution, 1836. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin

                                The Republic of Texas was born on March 2, 1836, when 58 delegates at Washington-on-the-Brazos signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. The first Texas Congress met at Columbia in the fall of 1836 to set the border with Mexico at the Rio Grande, a decision based on an aggressive interpretation of the Louisiana Purchase. The river remained under the control of Mexico, however, as the Mexican government did not recognize Texas' independence.

                                Image courtesy of Svalbertian, Creative Commons

                                On March 1, 59 delegates held the Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. There they drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and adopted it on March 2. During the Convention, delegates also drafted the Texas Constitution, outlining their plan for the new Republic. This took place only a month after Santa Anna entered Texas with his army of 6,000 men. Mexico’s army vastly outnumbered the Texas rebels.

                                The Gonzales Ranging Company answered William B. Travis' impassioned letter asking for reinforcements to defend the Alamo. Thirty-two Rangers reached the fort on March 1. On March 6, all 32 Rangers died. This single troop loss accounted for 20% of all Alamo battle losses. These Rangers are now known in history as the "Immortal 32."

                                Merely declaring independence was a long way from winning the revolution. On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna led an attack on the Alamo. Under the command of William B. Travis and James Bowie, Texas rebels fought a fierce battle against the Mexican army. Casualties were high on both sides, but Santa Anna’s army ultimately triumphed. The defenders of the Alamo were killed in the attack, including famed frontiersman and former U.S. Congressman David Crockett. Those who did survive were captured and executed by Santa Anna’s troops. News of the defeat spread to Gonzales, where Sam Houston had formed an army. Feeling unprepared for the advancing army, Houston ordered Gonzales be evacuated and burned. The month-long flight, where evacuees headed east with news of Santa Anna’s advance, is known as “The Runaway Scrape.” In Goliad, Colonel James Fannin had been ordered to abandon his position to join Texas forces with General Houston however, he remained at the fort at Goliad. They fought the Mexican Army at the Battle of Coleto, but faced the same fate as the soldiers at the Alamo. They were defeated, and the Santa Anna gave the order to have Fannin's captured army executed.

                                Independence seemed out of reach after the Alamo and Goliad. General Houston drew criticism for not having yet attacked Santa Anna's advancing army. Ordered to stop his retreat by ad interim President David G. Burnet, Houston returned west, receiving word that Santa Anna's army was encamped on the west side of the Buffalo Bayou and the San Jacinto River, inside the present-day city limits of Houston. At 3:30 p.m. on April 21, outnumbered and facing impossible odds, Houston ordered the attack on Mexican army. With shouts of "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!", the ragtag militia descended upon the Mexican army. It is widely believed Santa Anna and his soldiers were indulging in an afternoon siesta and therefore were not ready to face the attack, which lasted approximately 18 minutes. Nine Texans were killed, and 630 Mexicans lost their lives. Santa Anna was captured after the battle. And so began the Republic of Texas.

                                In September of 1836, the citizens of the new Republic of Texas quickly elected Sam Houston as their first president, and Mirabeau B. Lamar as vice president. Houston appointed Stephen F. Austin to be Secretary of State. Austin died in office on December 27, 1836, at the age of 43.

                                Greenberry Logan was a free person of color who arrived in Texas in 1831. He fought and was injured at the Siege of Bexar (December 1835). Despite his military service, the Texas Constitution sought to remove all free persons of color unless they obtained permission from Congress to continue living in Texas. Logan and his wife Caroline submitted their petition to remain in March 1837, asking that they “might be allowed the privilege of spending the remainder of [their] days in quiet and peace.” Congress honored their request.

                                Greenberry Logan’s petition to remain in Texas, March 13, 1837. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin.

                                The Texas Legislature passed an act authorizing Rangers to employ the services of "friendly" American Indian tribes as scouts and spies. Flacco, a Lipan Apache chief, served under Ranger John (Jack) Coffee Hays in 1841 and 1842. Hays later credited Flacco with saving his life in more than one battle with the Comanches.

                                The second president of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, took over a bankrupt and lawless country. Driven by a vision of future greatness, Lamar ruthlessly drove the Cherokee from Texas, waged war with the Comanche, and undertook a disastrous expedition to open a trade route to Santa Fe. He also founded a new capital in Austin and laid the foundation that would one day create schools, colleges, and world-famous universities.

                                Image courtesy of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin

                                Under the second president of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, the capital was relocated to Austin. Many in Congress believed that Houston was too far from the original Texas settlements, so the commission surveyed land north of San Antonio between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers. Lamar set up a commission to begin researching potential locations for the new capital. They ultimately chose the village of Waterloo and changed the name to Austin to honor the legacy of Stephen F. Austin.

                                Land was cheap— $.50 an acre compared to $1.25 in the U.S.— but settlement was difficult in the rugged and dangerous Republic of Texas. As a result, land sales attracted more speculators than actual settlers. To encourage settlement, the Texas Congress passed a homestead law. President Sam Houston opposed the bill because of rampant fraud and illegal claims on land titles, and kept the General Land Office closed throughout his term.

                                Image courtesy of Texas General Land Office

                                The flag you know today as the official State flag of Texas was adopted in January of 1839 as the official flag of the Republic of Texas.

                                Republic of Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar ordered the expulsion or extermination of all American Indian tribes. In the Battle of the Neches, near present-day Tyler, Cherokees were defeated in their attempt to retain land granted to them by a previous state treaty. Cherokee Chief Bowles died clutching a sword given to him by his close friend, Sam Houston.

                                Image courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

                                In the 1840s, during the Republic of Texas era, individual ranchers organized cattle drives to New Orleans. They also established the Shawnee Trail to Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa, where they could place the cattle on rail cars to be transported to the big markets in New York and Philadelphia.

                                President Lamar ordered the Rangers to attack Comanche villages in his campaign to drive American Indians out of Texas. War chiefs agreed to peace negotiations with the Rangers at Council House in San Antonio. At the talks, the Comanches entered with an injured hostage and demanded more money for the remaining hostages. Soon bullets and arrows flew. Six Texans and many Comanche war chiefs, women, and children died. The stage was set for the Battle of Plum Creek.

                                John (Jack) Coffee Hays led a company of Rangers toward Plum Creek. Word had spread of raiding Comanches seeking retribution for the Council House massacre. The Comanches reached Kelly Springs where their war chief, wearing a stovepipe hat and carrying a lady's parasol taken from a Linnville warehouse, was killed immediately. Fierce fighting continued along the San Marcos River with 150 Comanches killed.

                                Zylpha “Zelia” Husk emigrated to Texas by 1838 from Alabama and worked as a laundress in Houston. In 1840, Texas passed an Act Concerning Free Persons of Color that ordered all free Black people living in Texas to leave within two years unless granted an exemption by Congress. Husk petitioned the Republic for permanent residency in 1841. Fifty different white residents from Harris County testified that “we have known Zelp[ha] Husk for at least two or three years as a free woman of color, … she has conducted herself well and earned her living by honest industry.”

                                Zylpha Husk’s petition to remain in the Republic of Texas, December 16, 1841. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin.

                                When Texas sought recognition from Great Britain as a sovereign nation, they signed a treaty to suppress the transatlantic slave trade. They mutually agreed that the Royal Navy and Texas Navy could detain and search each other’s ships for enslaved Africans or equipment typically found on a slave-trading vessel. This included shackles, hatches with open gratings, larger quantities of water and food than what the crew needed, and spare planking for laying down a slave deck. If ships were found with any of these things, their crews could be found guilty of illegally participating in the African slave trade.

                                Treaty Between Great Britain and Texas to Suppress the Slave Trade, 1842. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin

                                On March 28, 1843, a number of Indian tribes including the Caddos, Delawares, Wacos, Tawakonis, Lipan Apaches, and Tonkawas attended the first council between the Tribes and Texas officials on Tehuacana Creek just south of present-day Waco.

                                Minutes of Indian Council at Tehuacana Creek, March 28, 1843, Texas Indian Papers, Courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

                                In 1836, the Republic of Texas voted in favor of annexation by the United States, but the U.S. wasn't interested because of concerns over the Republic's pro-slavery stance and an impending war with Mexico. By 1843, with the threat of British involvement in the Texas issue, U.S. President John Tyler proposed annexation. Texas drew up a state constitution in October 1845 and was admitted as the 28th U.S. state by the end of the year.

                                Texas' annexation to the United States was blocked over concern about slavery and debt. James K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844 on a promise to annex Texas (slave state) and the Oregon Territory (free state). The final obstacle to annexation was removed when Texas was allowed to keep its public lands to pay off its debt. Texas became the 28th U.S. state on December 29, 1845.

                                Image courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

                                Head chiefs for the Comanche including Buffalo Hump, Santa Anna, and others signed a treaty with John O. Meusebach, who acted on behalf of German settlers. The treaty allowed settlers to travel into Comancheria and for the Comanche to go to the white settlements. More than three million acres of land opened up to settlement as a result.

                                1972/141, Courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

                                Almost ten years after winning independence from Mexico, and after a long and controversial diplomatic struggle, Texas was annexed to the United States under the administration of President James Polk.

                                The annexation of Texas bolstered westward expansion of the United States. Settlers moved to Texas in droves. President Polk defined the border between Texas and Mexico at the Rio Grande, but Mexico did not agree. Diplomatic solutions failed. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to position troops along the north bank of the Rio Grande to protect the Texas boundary. The Mexican government saw this as an invasion and thus an act of war, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto in Brownsville on May 8, 1846—the first major battle of the U.S.-Mexican War. War was officially declared by U.S. Congress on May 13.

                                On February 2, 1848, the U.S.-Mexican War was brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. The treaty established boundaries between the United States and Mexico, with Mexico officially recognizing Texas as a part of the United States. Additionally, the treaty included the acquisition of Mexico's northern territory—which included California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, as well as parts of Wyoming and Colorado—for $15 million. The United States added more than 25% of its present day size, and Mexico lost over half its land as a result of the treaty.

                                "Four newly raised ranging companies, have all been organized, and taken their several stations on our frontier. We know they are true men and they know exactly what they are about. With many of them, Indian and Mexican fighting has been their trade for years. That they may be permanently retained in the service on our frontier is extremely desirable."

                                - Victoria Advocate newspaper

                                When the California gold rush began in 1849, Texas ranchers organized cattle drives to provide food for the "Forty-Niners." The drives left from San Antonio and Fredericksburg and took a perilous six-month journey through El Paso to San Diego and Los Angeles. The California cattle drives ended after the market there went bust in 1857.

                                On December 10, 1850, representatives from the U.S. government and the southern Comanche, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Quapaw, and various Wichita bands met for treaty negotiations at the Spring Creek Council Grounds. The tribal representatives agreed to stay west of the Colorado River and north of the Llano River, to abide by U.S. laws, and to turn over fugitive enslaved people and individuals being held as prisoners. The agent for the U.S. agreed to regulate traders in American Indian territory, establish at least one trade house, and send blacksmiths and teachers to live with the tribes.

                                This stone is one of two placed at the meeting site near Fort Martin Scott in Fredericksburg to commemorate the signing of the treaty. However, the treaty was not ratified by the U.S. government and neither side honored its provisions.

                                Treaty Stone, 1850.
                                Courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

                                As the United States grew, so did the need for a more reliable transportation system. Travel was difficult in antebellum Texas, worsened by the expansive and unforgiving terrain in the west. Businesses also needed a way to ship their goods through the expanding area. This prompted the construction of the first railroad in Texas, which opened in 1853. Known as the "Harrisburg Railroad," the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway ran about 20 miles from Harrisburg to Stafford's Point.

                                On October 29, 1853, Alabama Chief Antone, the tribal subchiefs, and prominent citizens of Polk County presented a petition to the Texas legislature requesting land for a reservation. In part to thank the tribes for their support of the Texas Revolution in 1836, the petition was approved. The State of Texas purchased 1,110.7 acres of land for the Alabama Indian reservation. About 500 tribe members settled on this land during the winter of
                                1854–55. In 1855 the Texas legislature appropriated funds to purchase 640 acres for the Coushattas.

                                J. De Cordova's Map of the State of Texas Compiled from the records of the General Land Office of the State, New York: J. H. Cotton, 1857, Map #93984, Rees-Jones Digital Map Collection, Archives and Records Program, Texas General Land Office, Austin, TX.

                                Upper and Lower Brazos Reservation was created in northern Texas. About 2,000 Caddo, Keechi, Waco, Delaware, Tonkawa, and Penateka Comanche, lived on the reservation. Five years later, attacks by white settlers and encroachments on the reservation resulted in the diverse tribes being forcibly removed to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma.

                                J. De Cordova's Map of the State of Texas Compiled from the records of the General Land Office of the State, New York: J. H. Cotton, 1857, Map #93984, Rees-Jones Digital Map Collection, Archives and Records Program, Texas General Land Office, Austin, TX.

                                Modern communication is something we all take for granted, but 19th-century Texans weren't so lucky. In 1854, the Texas and Red River Telegraph Company established service in Marshall, connecting to parts of Louisiana and Mississippi. By 1866, over 1500 miles of wire connected Texas.

                                As the number of settlers to Texas increased, so did the number of attacks as the Americans Indians were driven off their tribal lands. Texas Governor Hardin Runnels appropriated $70,000 to fund a force of 100 Rangers led by the legendary Senior Captain John "RIP" Ford. The Rangers spent the next several years fighting pitched battles with American Indian tribes as well as Mexican soldiers.

                                In the 1860s, the center of Texas cattle ranching shifted from South Texas to the frontier northwest of Fort Worth. Here settlers from Tennessee, Missouri, Kentucky, and Arkansas established new ranches in the rough brush country. These settlers, many of whom opposed secession, faced vigilante violence during the Civil War, but eventually expanded the cattle business into a true industry.

                                The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 prompted the secession of Southern, slave-holding states. The majority of Texans feared the election of a Republican would threaten slavery, which they believed was a vital part of the economy of the young state. Not all Texans bought into the idea of secession, most notably Sam Houston, the Unionist governor of the state. Although Houston himself was a slave-owner and opposed abolition, he actively worked to keep the state from seceding. However, the State Legislature voted in favor of an Ordinance of Secession on February 23, 1861. Governor Houston was evicted from office when he refused to take an oath to the Confederacy. Houston was replaced by Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark. This would mark the beginning of a long, bloody battle between the North and South. The Union would prove victorious four years later.

                                By a vote of 166 to 8, the Secession Convention of Texas voted to withdraw from the Union. Independence was declared on March 2, and on March 5, Texas joined the Confederate States of America. Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy. When the Convention removed him from office on March 16, Houston's political career was over. The statesman retired to Huntsville where he died two years later.

                                All able-bodied men were required to report for service to the Confederate Army. This left many Texas colonies and forts with no defense from continual Comanche and Kiowa raids. The Texas Legislature passed an act authorizing the formation of the Frontier Regiment. These Rangers patrolled 18 forts located along a 500-mile line from the Red River to the Rio Grande. By 1863, all Frontier Regiment Rangers were drafted into the Confederate Army.

                                Early in the Civil War, Texas ranchers supplied the Confederate army with beef. Federal troops seized control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans in 1863, cutting Texas off from its southern markets. With most men involved in the war, cattle were left to roam. By 1865, there were thousands of unbranded "maverick" cattle throughout the state.

                                Large-scale cattle raids by Comanche became common with attacks in Cooke, Denton, Montague, Parker, and Wise counties. In December, some 300 Comanches attacked settlements in Montague and Cooke counties and escaped after driving off soldiers from the Frontier Regiment.

                                Saddle pad, 1870s
                                Image courtesy Heritage Society, Houston, Gift of Mrs. Herman P. Pressler

                                U.S. Army Col. Kit Carson led 350 California and New Mexico volunteer cavalry against Comanche and Kiowa camps near the abandoned "Adobe Walls" trading post in the Texas Panhandle. After a battle of several hours, Carson and his troops narrowly escaped, outnumbered by about 1,400 Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache warriors.

                                The Freedman's Bureau was a federal agency created to assist African Americans in the South with their transition to freedom following the Civil War. It was established by Congress in March 1865 as a branch of the United States Army and operated in Texas from late September 1865 until July 1870. The agency assisted newly freed African Americans with legal matters, education, and employment. The Bureau was also tasked with curbing the violence inflicted upon African Americans, especially by the KKK, a newly founded hate group.

                                Illustration of The Freedmen's Bureau distributing rations

                                On June 19, 1865, federal authority was established in Texas when General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston. Granger proclaimed the end of slavery for 250,000 African Americans as well as the end of the Confederacy. "Juneteenth," celebrating that declaration of emancipation, was declared an official holiday in the state of Texas in 1980.

                                The economic devastation of the South after the Civil War meant Texas ranchers had to look elsewhere for profitable markets. In the North and East, cattle that were worth just $4 a head in Texas could be sold for $40. The challenge was getting them there. Cow folk and their cattle traveled the famed Chisholm Trail that crossed the Red River and headed into Kansas in order to reach the rail heads that could take the cattle to market.

                                The Army Reorganization Act authorized Congress to form the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry units. The soldiers signed up for five years and received three meals a day, a uniform, an education and $13.00 a month pay. These African American troops become known as "Buffalo Soldiers" because of their bravery in battles against Native Americans. The term eventually became a reference for all African American soldiers.

                                Buffalo Soldiers: The Unknown Army

                                Cathay Williams was a cook for the Union Army. When the Civil War ended, Cathay needed to support herself. She signed up with the 25th Infantry Buffalo Soldiers as William Cathay. When she was hospitalized, the doctor discovered her secret. On October 14, 1868, "William Cathay" was declared unfit for duty and honorably discharged. In 1891, Cathay applied for a military pension, but was denied because women weren't eligible to be soldiers.

                                885 men of the 9th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers regiment took up stations at Fort Stockton and Fort Davis. When not engaged in skirmishes with the Apache and Comanche Indians, the soldiers guarded civilian and government stagecoaches traveling along the San Antonio to El Paso road.

                                Fort Lancaster 9th Cavalry Company K soldiers were moving their horses to pasture. 400 Kickapoo Indians advanced toward the fort. The Buffalo Soldiers scurried to fire at the invaders while herding their valuable horses back toward the fort's corral. Bullets and arrows flew throughout the night. By the time the battle ended the next morning, Company K had lost 38 cavalry horses and two soldiers to the Kickapoo.

                                Pennsylvania-born Mifflin Kenedy began sheep ranching in Texas after the Mexican-American War of 1846. In the aftermath of the Civil War, Kenedy made his move into cattle ranching with the purchase of Laureles Ranch near Corpus Christi. Kenedy fenced his ranch with smooth wire in 1869, marking the beginning of enclosed ranching in Texas. In 1907, Laureles was incorporated into the mighty King Ranch.

                                After the Civil War, the United States entered the era of Reconstruction, during which former Confederate States had to meet certain conditions for readmission into the Union. This included recognizing the U.S. constitutional amendments that ended slavery and rewriting their state constitutions. Nine African Americans were delegates to the 1868 Constitutional Convention. One of these delegates, George T. Ruby was elected to the Texas Senate a year later, becoming the first African American to serve in the legislature. Texas was readmitted to the United States on March 30, 1870.

                                Hyrum Wilson and several others between 1869 and 1872 owned and operated a pottery company on land granted to them by their former enslaver, John Wilson. Years of experience in John Wilson’s pottery shop provided the newly freed men the knowledge and skills needed to establish and operate their own pottery company. The enterprise’s success provided a livelihood for the potters that differed from sharecropping and tenant farming, both of which tied African Americans to landowners in a manner much like slavery.

                                George T. Ruby (left) and Matthew Gaines (right). 1/151-1. Courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

                                When the Twelfth Provisional Legislature began in February 1870, it included Texas’s first two African American legislators. Elected in 1869 to serve in the Texas Senate were George T. Ruby, a former Freedmen’s Bureau agent originally from New York, and Matthew Gaines, a Baptist preacher. Together, these men pushed for resolutions to protect African American voters and supported bills for public education and prison reform.

                                George T. Ruby (left) and Matthew Gaines (right). Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin.

                                The original four infantry units of Buffalo Soldiers were reorganized into two regiments. The original 38th and 41st regiments became the 24th regiment, and the 39th and 40th were combined to become the 25th regiment. From that point on, the Buffalo Soldiers troops were comprised of the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments and the 24th and 25th Infantry regiments.

                                A new technique for tanning bison hides became commercially available. In response, commercial hunters began systematically targeting bison for the first time. Once numbering in the tens of millions, the bison population plummeted. By 1878, the American Bison were all but extinct. This was a terrible blow to the American Indians whose livelihood depended on the bison and to whom the bison is a sacred animal.

                                Pile of buffalo hides obtained from hunting expeditions in western Kansas, April 4, 1874.
                                Image courtesy Kansas Historical Society

                                Following the end of the Civil War, the cattle industry began to rebound. Cattle were turned loose in south Texas and their populations rapidly increased. With cattle numbers on the rise again, ranchers drove their herds toward the new markets in the northern U.S. The cattle industry in Texas was back and booming.

                                During Reconstruction, southern states were required to nullify acts of secession, abolish slavery, and ratify the 13th Amendment in order to be readmitted to the Union. Texas balked on the slavery issue, which prompted Congress to require that the Texas Legislature also pass the 14th and 15th Amendments before being considered for readmission. When Texas finally met all conditions, President Ulysses S. Grant readmitted Texas to the United States.

                                Sergeant Emmanuel Stance of the 9th Cavalry left Fort McKavett to rescue two children captured in an Apache raid. Stance and his men fought off the Apaches multiple times. Both children and over a dozen stolen horses were recovered. For his valor, Stance was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and became the first African American soldier to win the country's highest civilian medal in the post-Civil War period.

                                Under the command of General William T. Sherman, the 10th Cavalry conducted an inspection tour of Texas frontier to determine the safety of white settlers against Indian threats. They traveled over 34,000 miles, mapping significant geographical features as they went. The information they gathered was used to develop highly detailed maps of the unsettled territory.

                                Kiowas and Comanche attacked a freight wagon train on the Salt Creek Prairie of Young County and killed the wagon master and seven teamsters. In response U.S. Army Gen. Sherman ordered operations to arrest any Comanche and Kiowa found away from their reservation. Chiefs Satank, Satanta, and Big Tree were arrested and put on trial. They were the first Native American leaders to be tried for raids in a U.S. Court.

                                Photograph 518901, "White Bear (Sa-tan-ta), a Kiowa chief full-length, seated, holding bow and arrows" William S. Soule Photographs of Arapaho, Cheyenna, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians, 1868 - 1875 Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1793 - 1999 National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

                                In 1871, Ransom and Sarah Williams purchased 45 acres in southern Travis County, despite the discriminatory labor practices that kept most African Americans from earning enough money to purchase land. The Williams family supported themselves by raising horses and farming. Objects left behind at the farmstead show that the family was successful enough to have money to spend on toys, costume jewelry, manufactured dish sets imported from England, and mass-produced patent medicines and extracts.

                                Transfer-printed whiteware saucer owned by the Williams family (reconstructed), c. 1875–1897. Image courtesy Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

                                While on an expedition to the Llano Estacado, US Cavalry companies and Tonkawa scouts attacked a Comanche village on the North Fork of the Red River. About 13 women and children and their horse herd of some 800 animals were captured. Three soldiers were killed and seven wounded. The Comanche suffered 50 killed and seven wounded. The prisoners were sent to Fort Sill in Indian Territory.

                                Johnson, Chief of Tonkawa Scouts, United States Army, 1870–1875.
                                Image courtesy DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University

                                As the United States recovered from the Civil War, the nation's industrial capacity developed at a revolutionary pace. The overheated economy crashed in the Panic of 1873, causing the value of cattle to plummet. The resulting depression caused many cattle ranchers to go bankrupt and temporarily sidelined the industry.

                                Six companies of the 4th Cavalry, along with 24 Black-Seminole scouts led by Lt. John Bullis, crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a village of Lipan and Kickapoo near Remolino, Mexico. The survivors were deported to the Mescalero Reservation in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico.

                                A Black Seminole regiment, c. 1885. Image courtesy Archives of the Big Bend, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas.

                                Black troops in the U.S. Army were stationed throughout Texas, the Southwest, and the Great Plains. They were given the name "Buffalo Soldiers" by Native Americans. Four regiments served in Texas: the 9th and 10th Cavalry, and the 24th and 25th Infantry. The Buffalo Soldiers participated in many frontier campaigns and were responsible for a variety of military tasks, including building roads and escorting mail parties through the frontier.

                                Beginning in 1868, a series of patents was issued to several inventors for strong, mass-produced fencing made from interlocking strands of wire, outfitted with sharp barbs that discouraged even the toughest cattle from muscling through it. In 1876, two salesman demonstrated barbed wire in the Alamo Plaza in San Antonio. Within a few years, the simple, revolutionary invention had ended the open range.

                                By the winter of 1873‒1874, the Southern Plains Indians were in crisis. The reduction of the buffalo herds combined with increasing numbers of settlers and military patrols had put them in an unsustainable position. Led by Isa-tai and Quanah Parker, 250 warriors on June 27th attacked a small outpost of buffalo hunters at Adobe Walls in the Texas Panhandle. This would start the Red River (or Buffalo) War.

                                Red River War Kiowa Prisoners, Fort Marion, Florida, c.1875. Kiowas.
                                Image courtesy Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

                                Alex Sweet, editor of the nationally-circulated humor magazine Texas Siftings, wrote in 1882: "The Rangers have done more to suppress lawlessness, to capture criminals, and to prevent Mexican and Indian raids on the frontier, than any other agency employed by either the State or national government."

                                The U.S. Army began a campaign to remove all Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho from the southwest plains and relocate them to reservations in Indian Territory. Led by Comanche Chief Quanah Parker, the Indian tribes fought one last battle for their native lands. The U.S. Army, including all regiments of the Buffalo Soldiers, engaged the Indians in over 20 battles from 1874 to 1875 in the Texas panhandle around the Red River.

                                The cattle drives faced the constant threat of attack by American Indians. In a series of battles known as the Red River War, the U.S. Army defeated a large force of Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Comanche at Palo Duro Canyon, by capturing and killing their horses. Without their ability to make war, the Indians were forced to relocate to reservations in Oklahoma, opening up the Staked Plains to cattle ranching.

                                The Red River War officially ended in June 1875 when Quanah Parker and his band of Quahadi Comanche entered Fort Sill and surrendered. They were the last large band in Texas. The United States had now defeated the unified Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, and Kiowa and forcibly confined them to reservations.

                                Photograph 530911, "Quanah Parker, a Kwahadi Comanche chief full-length, standing in front of tent" Photographs of American Military Activities, ca. 1918 - ca. 1981 Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 - 1985 National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

                                Created in 1876 as a result of legislation in Texas that mandated higher education opportunities for African Americans, Prairie View A&M became the first state supported institution of higher learning for African Americans in Texas. The school’s original curriculum was the training of teachers, but in 1887 it expanded to include agriculture, nursing, arts and sciences, and mechanical arts, and by 1932, the college initiated graduate programs in agricultural economics, rural education, agricultural education, and rural sociology.

                                Birds-eye view of Prairie View State Normal College, ca. 1900. Image courtesy of Prairie View A&M University, Special Collections/Archives Department, Prairie View, TX

                                Since Texas gained independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Constitution has undergone five revisions. The Constitution of 1876 was the sixth revision of the document and established the foundation for the law still in effect in Texas today. The 1875 constitution, in part a reaction to Reconstruction, shortened terms and lowered salaries of elected officials, decentralized control of public education, limited powers of both the legislature and governor, and provided biennial legislative sessions. The new constitution also created the University of Texas and confirmed the creation of Texas A&M, setting aside one million acres of land for the Permanent University Fund.

                                Henry O. Flipper was the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point.

                                Even Steven

                                NEW BOOK! Echoes of AraratIn Echoes of Ararat, author Nick Liguori contends that oral traditions of the Flood—and the survival of the few inside the floating Ark—are even more prevalent than previously thought, and they powerfully confirm the truth of the Genesis account.This unprecedented work carefully documents hundreds of native traditions of the Flood—as well as the Tower of Babel and the Garden of Eden—from the tribes of North and South America. Learn what the Cherokee, Lakota, Iroquois, Cheyenne, Inuit, Inca, Aztec, Guaraní, and countless other tribes claimed about the early history of the world.Liguori also shares many evidences for the historical reliability of Genesis, and shows that the Genesis Flood account is not dependent on the Epic of Gilgamesh or other Near Eastern texts, as skeptics claim. Rather, its author Moses had access to ancient records passed down by the early patriarchs, including Joseph, Jacob, Abraham, and even Noah himself.

                                Extra-biblical Flood Legends
                                BY FRANK SHERWIN, M.A. * | MONDAY, APRIL 19, 2021

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                                “Creation stands or falls on the Genesis Flood,” stated a creation geologist years ago. The fact of the Flood covering all the earth is undeniable. As described in Genesis 7,

                                19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered.

                                20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail and the mountains were covered.

                                21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:

                                22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.

                                In addition, 73% of the earth’s crust is covered by sedimentary rock laid down by the Flood’s waters about 4,500 years ago. Within these rocks are trillions of fossilized animals (mostly marine invertebrates) and plants—remnants of a world “filled with violence.”

                                Between Scripture and the geological-paleontological record, the effects of the Flood are clearly seen. There is, however, a third indication of this worldwide, devastating event—the universal flood legends recorded by all the major people groups of Earth. If “the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished” (2 Peter 3:6), it would undoubtedly leave an indelible memory of the generations following the Flood.

                                As people groups spread and migrated after the Tower of Babel, they would carry with them the Flood story. Through the centuries, stories of the Flood were passed on to each generation via early patriarchs such as Joseph, Jacob, and Abraham, records that Moses had access to. As the years went by in some parts of the world, there would be editing and embellishments of the Flood event, but the basic story of judgment via a worldwide deluge, the preservation of a remnant in a structure, and the events directly afterwards would be preserved. The account of the Flood in Genesis comes from Noah himself and is written and edited by Moses and is not dependent on Near Eastern texts. Knowing this, a wise historian would search out similarities between Moses’ Flood story and the flood stories told in other cultures.

                                Nick Liguori is a civil engineer and an avocational researcher. He has applied his knowledge of biblical history to painstakingly put together a compendium of Flood traditions from North and South America. His 2021 book documents these fascinating oral traditions. Entitled Echoes of Ararat (Master Books, 298 pages), Liguori shows the reader that the critical opening chapters of Genesis are true and historically accurate. Such Flood traditions have been found to be even more prevalent than was originally thought, offering Liguori’s book as a fresh new resource for those interested in Flood geology and early biblical history.

                                A brief sampling of stories recorded by Nick Liguori are

                                The water grew higher and higher until all the earth was covered . . . A single family remained alive. —the Chimila tribe of northern Colombia

                                Then the waters went up, up and up, flooding all the mountains and highest hills and killing all that had life on the earth. Only one house had been raised over the waters, which had covered all the species of animals. —Mayan ancestors of the Jakalteks of northwestern Guatemala

                                They have a tradition of the floud [flood], that all the world was once drowned, except a few that were saved, to wit, about seven or eight in a great canoro [canoe]. —Rev John Clayton (d. 1725) recording the narrative from the Powhatan tribe of Virginia

                                Very long ago there was a great flood by which all men and animals were destroyed, with the exception of a single raven. —the Kootenay people of southeastern British Columbia

                                You may purchase this new resource here.

                                *Mr. Frank Sherwin is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and earned his master’s degree in invertebrate zoology from the University of Northern Colorado.

                                Another great apologetic tool from the Institute For Creation Research. I just ordered my copy of Echoes Of Ararat. This organization has shared much proof for a recent creation and a global flood. It behooves us to learn from them and then pass on the information to our skeptical friends! Amen and amen. Blessings, Pastor Steve <><

                                Watch the video: Oldest gorilla fossil challenges beliefs on evolution (August 2022).