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Cat with a Bishop's Crosier & Miter

Cat with a Bishop's Crosier & Miter

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A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) [1] is a stylized staff that is a symbol of the governing office of a bishop or Apostle and is carried by high-ranking prelates of Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Anglican, Lutheran, United Methodist and Pentecostal churches.

In Western Christianity the usual form has been a shepherd's crook, curved at the top to enable animals to be hooked. In Eastern Christianity, it is found in two common forms: tau-shaped, with curved arms, surmounted by a small cross or a pair of sculptured serpents or dragons curled back to face each other, with a small cross between them.

Other typical insignia of prelates are the mitre, the pectoral cross, and the episcopal ring.


Etymology Edit

μίτρα, mítra (Ionic μίτρη, mítrē) is Greek, and means a piece of armour, usually a metal guard worn around the waist and under a cuirass, as mentioned in Homer's Iliad. In later poems, it was used to refer to a headband used by women for their hair and a sort of formal Babylonian headdress, as mentioned by Herodotus (Histories 1.195 and 7.90). It also refers to a kind of hairband, such as: the victor's chapter at the games a headband and a badge of rank at the Ptolemaic court an oriental headdress, perhaps a kind of turban, etc. as a mark of effeminacy, a diadem headdress of the priest of Heracles headdress of the Jewish high priest, et al. [1]

Byzantine empire Edit

The camelaucum (Greek: καμιλαύκιον, kamilaukion), the headdress, that both the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, was originally a cap used by officials of the Imperial Byzantine court. "The tiara [from which the mitre originates] probably developed from the Phrygian cap, or frigium, a conical cap worn in the Graeco-Roman world. In the 10th century the tiara was pictured on papal coins." [2] Other sources claim the tiara developed the other way around, from the mitre. In the late Empire it developed into the closed type of Imperial crown used by Byzantine Emperors (see illustration of Michael III, 842–867).

Worn by a bishop, the mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century. The first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Pope Leo IX in the year 1049. By 1150 the use had spread to bishops throughout the West by the 14th century the tiara was decorated with three crowns.

Western Christianity Edit

In its modern form in Western Christianity, the mitre is a tall folding cap, consisting of two similar parts (the front and back) rising to a peak and sewn together at the sides. Two short lappets always hang down from the back.

In the Catholic Church, ecclesial law gives the right to use the mitre and other pontifical insigna (crosier, pectoral cross, and ring) to (1) bishops, (2) abbots, and (3) cardinals and those canonically equivalent to diocesan bishops who do not receive episcopal ordination. The principal celebrant presents the mitre and other pontifical insignia to a newly ordained bishop during the Rite of Ordination of a Bishop and to a new abbot during the Rite of Blessing of an Abbot. In the case of a person who is canonically equivalent to a diocesan bishop but does not receive episcopal ordination, this presentation normally occurs during a public installation as the ordinary of his jurisdiction. Catholic ecclesial law also permits former Anglican bishops received into full communion and subsequently ordained to the order of presbyter in the Catholic Church to obtain permission to use pontifical insignia as a mark of recognition of their previous ministry (they also may be admitted to the national or regional episcopal conference with status equivalent to that of retired Catholic bishops), but former Anglican bishops typically have not requested permission to use pontifical insignia under this provision.

Three types of mitres are worn by Roman Catholic clergy for different occasions:

  • The simplex ('simple', referring to the materials used) is made of undecorated white linen or silk and its white lappets traditionally end in red fringes. It is worn most notably at funerals, Lenten time, on Good Friday and by concelebrant bishops at a Mass. Cardinals in the presence of the Pope wear a mitre of white linen damask.
  • The auriphrygiata is of plain gold cloth or white silk with gold, silver or coloured embroidered bands when seen today it is usually worn by bishops when they preside at the celebration of the sacraments.
  • The pretiosa ('precious') is decorated with precious stones and gold and worn on the principal Mass on the most solemn Sundays (except in Lent) and feast days. This type of mitre is rarely decorated with precious stones today, and the designs have become more varied, simple and original, often merely being in the liturgical colour of the day.

The proper colour of a mitre is always white, although in liturgical usage white also includes vestments made from gold and silver fabrics. The embroidered bands and other ornaments which adorn a mitre and the lappets may be of other colours and often are. Although coloured mitres are sometimes sold and worn at present, this is probably due to the maker's or wearer's lack of awareness of liturgical tradition. [ dubious – discuss ]

On all occasions, an altar server may wear a shawl-style veil, called a vimpa, around the shoulders when holding the bishop's mitre.

With his inauguration as pope, Benedict XVI broke with tradition and replaced the papal tiara even on his papal coat of arms with a papal mitre (containing still the three levels of 'crowns' representing the powers of the papacy in a simplified form) and pallium. Prior to Benedict XVI, each pope's coat of arms always contained the image of the papal tiara and St. Peter's crossed keys, even though the tiara had fallen into disuse, especially under popes John Paul I and John Paul II. Pope Paul VI was the last pope to date to begin his papal reign with a formal coronation in June 1963. However, as a sign of the perceived need for greater simplification of the papal rites, as well as the changing nature of the papacy itself, he abandoned the use of his tiara in a dramatic ceremony in Saint Peter's Basilica during the second session of Vatican II in November 1963. However his 1975 Apostolic Constitution made it clear the tiara had not been abolished: in the constitution he made provision for his successor to receive a coronation. Pope John Paul I, however, declined to follow Paul VI's constitution and opted for a simpler papal inauguration, a precedent followed by his three successors. Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic Constitution left open several options by not specifying what sort of ceremony was to be used, other than that some ceremony would be held to inaugurate a new pontificate.

Pope Paul VI donated his tiara (a gift from his former archdiocese of Milan) to the efforts at relieving poverty in the world. Later, Francis Cardinal Spellman of New York received the tiara and took it on tour of the United States to raise funds for the poor. It is on permanent view in the Crypt Church in the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C.

In the Church of England, the mitre fell out of use after the Reformation, but was restored in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of the Oxford Movement, and is now worn by most bishops of the Anglican Communion on at least some occasions. In The Episcopal Church of the United States, the first Presiding Bishop, Samuel Seabury wore a mitre as early as 1786. The mitre is also worn by bishops in a number of Lutheran churches, for example the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia and the Church of Sweden. [3]

In ecclesiastical heraldry, a mitre was placed above the shield of all persons who were entitled to wear the mitre, including abbots. It substituted for the helm of military arms, but also appeared as a crest placed atop a helmet, as was common in German heraldry. [4] In the Anglican Churches, the Church of Sweden, and the Lutheran Church of Finland, the mitre is still placed above the arms of bishops instead of the ecclesiastical hat. In the Roman Catholic Church, the use of the mitre above the shield on the personal arms of clergy was suppressed in 1969, [5] and is now found only on some corporate arms, like those of dioceses. Previously, the mitre was often included under the hat, [6] and even in the arms of a cardinal, the mitre was not entirely displaced. [7] In heraldry the mitre is always shown in gold, and the lappets (infulae) are of the same colour. It has been asserted that before the reformation, a distinction was used to be drawn between the mitre of a bishop and an abbot by the omission of the infulae in the abbot's arms. In England and France it was usual to place the mitre of an abbot slightly in profile. [4]

Mitre simplex traditional style: White damask with its white lappets ending in red fringes.

Symbols of the Office of Bishop

I was watching the installation of Archbishop McCarrick of Washington. I have always wondered why bishops wear what they do, meaning the mitre and staff. Where do these things come from?

Bishops wear certain regalia which are distinctive of the Order of Bishop, the fullness of the Sacrament of Holy Orders - the pectoral cross, ring, mitre, crozier (staff) and pallium.

The regular regalia which identify a bishop are the pectoral cross and the ring. The pectoral cross (crux pectoralis) is worn by the Holy Father, cardinals, bishops, and abbots. The word pectoral derives from the Latin pectus, meaning Abreast." This cross is attached to a chain (or cord) and is worn on the chest, near the heart. In the earliest times, the pectoral cross contained a relic of the True Cross or even of a saint. While not all pectoral crosses today continue to contain a relic, the tradition remains. Interestingly, in 1889, the Holy See recommended that the pectoral cross of a deceased bishop which contained a relic of the True Cross be given to his successor. When putting on the pectoral cross, traditionally the bishop says, "Munire me digneris," asking the Lord for strength and protection against all evil and all enemies, and to be mindful of His passion and cross.

Bishops also wear a ring. In the past, a distinction was made between the pontifical ring (which would have a gemstone, traditionally an amethyst), and the ordinary ring (which would have the bishop's coat of arms or some other design engraved on it). The ring, like a wedding band, symbolizes that the bishop is "wedded" to his diocese. Also, the ring would be used, at least in days long ago, to make the imprint of the bishop's seal in the hot wax to authenticate documents. Moreover, in Catholic tradition, to reverence or "kiss" the ring of the bishop as a sign of respect for his authority is still proper interestingly, a partial indulgence was attached to the reverencing of the bishop's ring.

The other regalia - the mitre, crozier and pallium - are worn for liturgical functions. The mitre is a "headdress." The word mitre derives from the Greek mitra, which signifies a headband or diadem. In the Old Testament, the High Priest and other priests wore a distinctive garb which included a mitre: "For Aaron and his sons, there were also woven tunics of fine linen the mitre of fine linen the ornate turbans of fine linen drawers of linen (of fine linen twined) and sashes of variegated work made of fine linen twined and of violet, purple, and scarlet yarn, as the Lord had commanded Moses. The plate of the sacred diadem was made of pure gold and inscribed, as on a seal engraving: 'Sacred to the Lord.' It was tied over the mitre with the violet ribbon, as the Lord had commanded Moses" (Ex 39:27-31 cf. Lv 8:7-9).

Exactly when the Church adopted the mitre as part of the vesture of bishops is hard to pinpoint. One tradition holds that the mitre's usage dates to the time of the Apostles other traditions place its first usage about the eighth or ninth centuries. Of course artists have taken the liberty to depict the apostles and the earliest saints who were bishops as wearing mitres. The first written mention of the mitre is in a bull issued by Pope Leo IX in the year 1049, when he granted Bishop Eberhard of Trier "the Roman mitre" as a sign of his authority and of the primacy of the Diocese of Trier. By 1100, a bishop customarily wore a mitre.

In the Latin Rite, the mitre originally was a headband with a veil, and eventually appeared more in its present triangular form pointing upward with two infulae or fans (two strips of cloth hanging from behind). Some suggest that the infulae originated from the sweatband that Greek athletes wore, which was wrapped around the forehead, tied behind the head in a knot with the two ends hanging down the back since the victorious athlete was crowned with a laurel wreath, the whole headdress soon was seen as a sign of victory. The mitre took on a similar symbolic meaning. Such symbolism arises from St. Paul's analogy: AI have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. From now on a merited crown awaits me. " (2 Tm 4:7-8). Surely, the bishop should be leading his flock in the race to salvation to final victory in Heaven.

Over the centuries, mitres were elongated or embellished according to the times. For example, during the baroque period, mitres were very tall and were embellished with jewels. Also, please note that in the Eastern Rites, the bishops wear a mitre that looks like an ornamented round hat with a cross on top.

The crozier, or officially the pastoral staff (baculus pastoralis), symbolizes the role of bishop as the Good Shepherd. In the Gospel of St. John (10:1-21), our Lord identified Himself as the Good Shepherd. The word translated as Agood" in the original Greek text is kalos, which also means "model." Our Lord is the model shepherd for the apostles and their successors, the bishops, who are appointed as shepherds. The bishop, like a good shepherd, must lead his faithful flock along the path of salvation, disciplining and protecting them as needed. The shepherd's staff is therefore a most appropriate symbol for the office of bishop. St. Isidore explained that a newly consecrated bishop received the crozier "that he may govern and correct those below him or to offer support to the weakest of the weak." Since the time of Pope Paul VI, the Holy Father's crozier has a curved cross at the top, which symbolizes his special office as not only bishop of Rome, but also the Vicar of Christ who is entrusted with the leadership of the universal Church.

Finally, the Holy Father, metropolitan archbishops, and the patriarch of Jerusalem also wear a pallium. (A metropolitan archbishop is one who actually governs an archdiocese and heads a province.) The pallium is a strip of white wool which is worn around the neck like a collar, over the chasuble, with two strips, one hanging down the front and one hanging down the back. Predating Christianity, the pallium was about twelve feet in length and worn for warmth. Christians adopted this garment and viewed it as a sign of their fidelity to Christ. The usage of the pallium evolved over time: By the third century, it was worn by both the laity and clergy by the fourth century, by the pope and eventually exclusively by him alone by the fifth century, by the pope and those important clergy who had received it as a gift from the pope by the ninth century, exclusively by the pope, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops of special distinction and by a decree of 1978, to metropolitan archbishops and the patriarch of Jerusalem as well as the pope.

Presently, the pallium is much shorter and is embroidered with six black crosses. The pallia are made each year from lamb's wool freshly sheared on the feast of St. Agnes (Jan. 21), a tradition originating during the pontificate of Pope John XIII (965-972). The woven pallia are then kept in a small silver box in the crypt area under the high altar at the Basilica of St. Peter near St. Peter's tomb. On the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul (June 29), the Holy Father blesses the pallia and presents them to metropolitan archbishops.

These different regalia all give a certain distinction to the Order of Bishop. They also inspire respect for the office and its authority. While "the clothes do not make the man," the man must strive to fulfill what the clothes signify.

Saunders, Rev. William. "Symbols of the Office of Bishop" Arlington Catholic Herald.

This article is reprinted with permission from Arlington Catholic Herald.

Why are there different kinds and shapes of mitres?

Archbishop Fulton Sheen lived
during the age of ultra-tall mitres.
The height of the mitre roughly corresponds with the style of the age it was made. What began as squat, short points in the Gothic age grew taller by the centuries until they reached their apex in the years immediately before Vatican II. There was a sharp reaction against the 2-foot tall mitres of Pius XII's day, so the heights came down by half everywhere outside of Rome.

Important: the dominant color of the mitre is always either gold or white. It was never the tradition to wear a mitre that matched the liturgical color of the day. Red, green, or purple mitres are all of very recent invention and still against the rubrics of the Ordinary Form liturgy!

The Anglican archbishops of Canterbury and York. Note York's incorrect (by Roman standards) green mitre.

During the period between the Resurrection and Ascension, Christ was busy rounding up his followers. He was a like a shepherd with his small flock. His disciples were also destined to be shepherds. Bishops are their successors, with St. Peter having primacy among them. Although Our Lord is rarely shown with a shepherd’s crook, it seems that bishops adopted the instrument to become a mark of their office. Even the word “pastor” is taken from the Latin word for a shepherd.

It’s not entirely clear when and how the shepherd’s crook became a bishop’s emblem. There is also a possibility that the crosier was a simple continuation of the tradition of carrying a big stick to convey authority. What is beyond doubt is that as bishops became more prominent, rather than being persecuted, their trappings of office became more lavish. Instead of being a simple wooden staff with a crook for catching sheep – and a point for prodding them – the crosier often became a jewel-encrusted wonder.

The variety of crosiers is astonishing. The opportunity for artistry is enormous, and the results are often ingenious. The crook deserves scrutiny for the brilliance of the designs, which tend to be overlooked. Observers tend to be in awe of the whole of a bishop’s ensemble, not the occasional whimsy of a crosier, which is as much a part of a bishop’s regalia as his miter. The only bishop who hasn’t carried one for centuries is the pope. Also known as Bishops of Rome, long ago the popes started carrying a cross or crucifix on a staff, rather than the crook. Archbishops were offered the same opportunity. To make the situation more complicated, some bishops’ crosiers also feature a crucifix in them, but none prominent enough to confuse onlookers into thinking the Holy Father might be in their midst.

Some of the crosier hooks became so elaborate, it is hard to tell what they are. They certainly wouldn’t be up to the job of catching sheep. For more infirm bishops they have also been a useful support, just as the popes’ and archbishops’ crucifix staffs have been. A tradition that is unfailingly observed among the Catholic clergy is that the hook side of the crosier always points outwards, towards the flock. It is also always held with the left hand, although not every artist has been aware of this convention.

Artists were similarly negligent in depicting female crosier bearers. Abbots, like bishops, were presented with a crosier. As the same applied to abbesses, women were awarded crosiers too. This is comparatively rare in visual depictions, but bishops were also often shown without their crosiers.

Anglicans and a number of other non-Catholic denominations now use the crosier freely. It was not so popular after the Reformation, with its suggestions of Papist flamboyance. Martin Luther was fairly understanding about this tradition John Calvin was not. Paradoxically, the black robes that the early Protestants favored over bright Catholic vestments were extremely expensive. Black dyes were a costly luxury.

Among Orthodox Christians, crosiers tend be different from the Catholic versions. Those who think the serpent is reserved for Satan will be surprised to find them as the main feature on top of the staffs carried by many Orthodox bishops. They are, in fact, no more sinister than the snakes that are sometimes seen on Catholic crucifixes and frequently on Catholic crosiers of centuries past.

There is also a serpent on one of the most famous of all crosiers. In a symbolic gesture in 2016, Pope Francis gave the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury a crosier – or at least the crook of one. It was the first time this had happened since the Reformation. Bestowing the crosier would usually be taken as confirmation of the Pope’s authority over a bishop. Many English Protestants winced when they saw it, while others took it as a sign of true reconciliation between two like-minded men of God. The occasion was the 50th anniversary of a declaration seeking unity between the Church of Rome and the Church of England. The crosier in question was a replica of one used by St. Gregory the Great, the pope who entrusted St. Augustine of Canterbury with bringing Christianity to England in 597. For almost a thousand years, Archbishops of Canterbury looked to the Bishop of Rome as their chief shepherd. It is less than 500 years that they have looked to English monarchs instead.


From the seventeenth century much has been written concerning the length of time the mitre has been worn. According to one opinion its use extends back into the age of the Apostles according to another, at least as far back as the eighth or ninth century while a further view holds that it did not appear until the beginning of the second millennium, but that before this there was an episcopal ornament for the head, in form like a wreath or crown. In opposition to these and similar opinions, which cannot all be discussed here, it is, however, to be held as certain that an episcopal ornament for the head in the shape of a fillet never existed in Western Europe, that the mitre was first used at Rome about the middle of the tenth century, and outside of Rome about the year 1000. Exhaustive proof for this is given in the work (mentioned in bibliography below), "Die liturgische Gewandung im Occident und Orient" (pp. 431-48), where all that has been brought forward to prove the high antiquity of the mitre is exhaustively discussed and refuted. The mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century the one is in a baptismal register, the other in Exultet-roll of the cathedral at Bari, Italy. The first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Leo IX of the year 1049. In this the pope, who had formerly been Bishop of Toul, France, confirmed the primacy of the Church of Trier to Bishop Eberhard of Trier, his former metropolitan who had accompanied him to Rome. As a sign of this primacy, Leo granted Bishop Eberhard the Roman mitre, in order that he might use it according to the Roman custom in performing the offices of the church. By about 1100-50 the custom of wearing the mitre was general among bishops.

  • Fast attack rate and animation
  • Cheap and fast to produce
  • Area Attack [True]
  • Good health [True]

Bishop Cat's first two forms have a very nice crowd-control ability, anti-Floating slow. Sadly, they have such poor range that they can't take advantage of it and thus fail in using their niche.

True Form

More range and Area Attack says it all, Sanzo Cat is a much better cat than either of the previous ones and packs a very effective slow. His range is only 250, which is more than enough to take care of many dangerous Floating enemies such as the Bun Bun variants and the Cyclones. However, he is still limited to melee Floating enemies due to his somewhat mediocre range. Overall, a high priority true form and a huge improvement over his previous forms.


Its talents include targeting Angel enemies, allowing Sanzo Cat to slow them in addition to Floating enemies. This makes many angel-heavy stages considerably easier, as short-ranged Angels like Boraphim, Angelic Gory and the Divine Cyclone are all slowed. Sanzo also has a weaken talent, which can be combined with the original Slow ability to have better control on the battlefield. The last worthwhile talent is the ability to survive a lethal strike, as it allows a stack of Sanzo Cats to survive a hit if some other non-Angel or Floating enemy breaks through.

Cat with a Bishop's Crosier & Miter - History

A “crozier” (crosier) is a staff in the shape of a shepherd’s crook that symbolizes the offices of bishops and abbots. Shepherds use a crook to help guide and rescue sheep, and so the crozier symbolizes Jesus as the Good Shepherd as well as the shepherding responsibilities of the bishop.

The Crozier Society of the Diocese of Maryland honors those who have made generous annual gifts to the ministries of the Bishop’s Appeal. Each giving level of the Society makes a progressively greater impact on behalf of those we serve, and is appreciated and honored with special recognition.

Through the Bishop’s Annual Ministries Appeal, we spread Christ’s love, hope and mercy to a hurting world. Especially because of the gifts of Crozier Society members, we are able to support chaplaincy at Johns Hopkins Hospital continue the work of racial reconciliation and our fight against poverty and violence assist our Latinx community in their worship and neighborhood outreach ministries offer legal referrals and direct help to refugees and asylum seekers give Baltimore City high school students an opportunity to learn life skills essential to academic, work and personal success and offer children who are at-risk the chance to deepen their love of and skills for reading.

These are just a few of the diocesan ministries that are engaged in vital work as we keep people connected and continue to build a Community of Love in the face of some of the most challenging conditions the Church has ever faced.

To see how you are helping improve the lives of those whom we serve, please read the descriptions of all the ministries supported by the Bishop’s Appeal at:

Thank you for your support of the mission of Jesus Christ as lived out through the ministries of the Diocese of Maryland

The Crozier Society of the Bishop of Maryland


Crozier Society Giving Levels

Chasuble Level – $1,000

  • Is recognized with a Crozier Society Pin
  • Includes an invitation to an annual Service of Recognition and Luncheon
    Chasuble Level Example Impact[1]: $1,000 could provide 15 families with food for a week

Miter Level – $2,500

  • All Chasuble Level benefits plus
  • A Book of Common Prayer signed by the Bishops
    Mitre Level Example Impact [1]: $2,500 can reunify a family of asylum seekers, paying for air fares and supplies

Pectoral Cross Level – $5,000

  • All Miter Level benefits plus
  • An Annual Donor Dinner with Recognition at the Claggett Center
    Pectoral Cross Level Example Impact [1]: $5,000 could send 25 children to a Reading Camp

Episcopal Ring Level – $10,000

  • All Pectoral Cross Level benefits plus
  • A Private Lunch with the Bishop
    Episcopal Ring Example Impact [1]: $10,000 could pay for a young person to be a part of the Sutton Scholars program for all four years

Chasubles are outer vestments worn by the celebrant during the Eucharist. The chasuble may be oval or oblong with an opening for the head. It typically reflects the liturgical color of the day. The chasuble is derived from the outdoor cloak worn during the early days of the Church in the Greco-Roman world. Chasubles vary widely in fabric and style.

Miters are hats, usually white, gold, or red, sometimes quite beautifully embroidered. The triangular shape is supposed to represent the tongues of fire that rested on the heads of the disciples on the Day of Pentecost, when God sent the Holy Spirit to them. A bishop receives a miter during his or her ordination, when the Holy Spirit comes to the new bishop in the same way that the Holy Spirit came to the first disciples.

The Pectoral Cross, typically made of silver or gold, was used by the bishop of Rome in the 13th century and came into general use by all bishops in the 16th century. The cross is suspended by a chain around the neck and usually hangs at about the breastbone or pectoral muscles of the wearer. Some pectoral crosses are adorned with jewels.

The Episcopal Ring has been received by new bishops since the Middle Ages at their ordination as a sign of the office. It can be a signet ring, with the seal of the diocese inscribed in the metal or stone of the ring. The ring then can be used on official documents that call for the bishop to affix a seal in sealing wax. Modern Episcopal rings are often made of gold and ornamented with the purple gem, amethyst. The Episcopal ring is usually worn on the ring finger of the bishop’s right hand.

[1] This and all giving level Impacts are examples only. They give an idea of what a gift at that level could provide. They are not intended to state or imply the actual provision of that impact with every gift at that level.

The Episcopal Diocese of Maryland
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Andromeda Daley​Accounts Receivable

Andromeda Daley joined our diocesan staff in 2021. She holds a Masters of Business Administration from Le Moyne College and a Bachelor of Professional Studies in Management: Accounting from Cazenovia College. She moved to Maryland from New York in 2020 and resides in Baltimore with her fiancé Nathaniel and cat Trixie.

The Rev. Canon M. Joanna WhiteCanon for Pastoral Services

Joanna White serves as the chaplain for clergy, diocesan staff and their families. Joanna graduated from Yale Divinity School and was ordained by the Diocese of New York. Prior to that she studied nursing at Wesley College in Dover, Delaware and obtained a degree in criminal justice while practicing psychiatric nursing. Joanna holds additional master’s degrees in Community Health from Long Island University and Spirituality and Pastoral Care from Loyola University. She has served as rector of three parishes and done combined parish ministry and chaplaincy work, as well as work in recovery services. Joanna lives in Annapolis and has three children and four granddaughters. She has 2 grand-dogs and one ungrateful grand-cat who request to be added to the family listing.

Chaplains serve individuals in unique situations where they are coping with the challenges and opportunities of that environment. It is the task of the Chaplain to help them deepen their spirituality by understanding where God is in their life and hopefully, to discover meaning in the situation as presented. The clergy, staff and lay leaders of the diocese strive to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ in a world where there are increasing changes in the traditional church and fewer resources. When a representative of the diocese is there to address the range of personal stressors in the areas of illness, family conflict, finances or the inevitable changes brought about by the reasons stated above, the dedicated clergy, staff and lay leaders feel that their efforts are recognized. As with any large caring family, a crisis seems less daunting when you know you are not alone.

As a chaplain, Joanna seeks to help individuals to find deeper meaning in both the joyful and challenging aspects of their lives. While that sometimes requires extensive work one to one or with families, there are even more instances where a cup of coffee, a willing presence and a shared laugh are needed. Joanna looks forward to creating a program around caring for the caretakers and opening avenues of communication among clergy and staff to share experiences and resources.

Ms. Sally SwygertFacilities Coordinator

Sally has been the Facilities Coordinator since September 2014. She has a B.S. in Accounting from Virginia Tech and began her career in banking operations and then transitioned to full-time mom. She ventured back into the working world and is happy to be seated at the front desk of our diocesan and cathedral offices. She and her husband have three children and love spending time with them. Sally is an active member of St. Mark’s, Highland where she enjoys volunteering with the youth group and other ministries. She loves to exercise, travel, cook and cheer on the Ravens, Orioles, Clemson Tigers, Maryland Terps, Virginia Tech Hokies and the PGA tour.

As Facilities Coordinator, Sally is your point of contact for reserving space in any of the conference rooms or large gathering spaces at the Diocesan Center and Cathedral of the Incarnation. She is stationed at the reception desk in the front lobby and greets visitors with her welcoming smile as they enter our building. She answers all incoming calls to the Diocesan and Cathedral staff. She is happy to assist with any inquiries and forward your call to to the appropriate staff member.

Mr. Adam BarnerAssociate for Training and Benefits

Before coming to work at the Diocese in 2011, Adam was a parish administrator for several years. He has a degree in religious studies and philosophy, and lives in Baltimore.

Adam works with CPG and Medical Trust benefits administration, coordinates workshops, and assists the Canon for Mission with Sutton Scholars. He also processes background checks and coordinates convention exhibits.


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Crosier, also spelled crozier, also called pastoral staff, staff with a curved top that is a symbol of the Good Shepherd and is carried by bishops of the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and some European Lutheran churches and by abbots and abbesses as an insignia of their ecclesiastical office and, in former times, of temporal power. It is made of metal or carved wood and is often very ornate. Possibly derived from the ordinary walking stick, it was first mentioned as a sign of a bishop’s ruling power in 633 at the fourth Council of Toledo. French bishops adopted it in the late 8th century, and it was gradually adopted throughout Christendom. Originally a staff with a cross, sphere, or tau cross on top, it acquired its present form by the 13th century.

Bishops of the Eastern churches carry the baktēria ( dikanikion), a pastoral staff with either a tau cross or two serpents facing each other on top.

Cat with a Bishop's Crosier & Miter - History

The Bishop was originally an Elephant. The Bishop was the weakest piece in the old game. It could be moved to only eight squares by jumping to any of the squares diagonally two squares away. Until 1475 this was the move used in Europe.

The word fil is derived from the Persian pil for 'elephant'. Because Arabic lacks a p, the pil became fil. The Arabs use a prefix al- in combination with fil, so the Europeans called this piece fil or alfil. Later often changed to aufin. On the front of the elephant is a Mahoud or trainer sitting and on the back a warrior with a long range weapon like arrows.

In northern Europe the bishop was called initially aufin or old / wise man and later this changed into bishop. The first mention of a bishop is in the Vetula around 1300, but it takes a long time before the word bishop is normal in written documents. Figurative bishops become common in the 12th century in Northern Europe, and they all have miters and none have tonsuls. It is unclear what caused this change, but it happened after the conversion of Scandinavia and England. So maybe it was adapted after the hierarchy of the Viking society. The bishop was either sitting on a chair or on horseback, having a miter on his head and a crosier in his hand.

When the move of the bishop changed to moving to any slant field, the name changed in northern europe again to runner or messanger (courier / loper / cursor). It is not clear if the move change and name change are related. Aufin is maybe changed into Follus. The word follus which means fool was already used very early in Speculum Prelatorum (ca.1200) as name for the bishop. This was later changed to Fou, which means fool in French.

When reviewing the archeological record, then there are a lot of confusing chess pieces, who do not completely fit in the current theories. Some of them are clearly chess pieces, so that raises the question, which chess piece? Could some of them be the missing count from the Versus de Scacchis?

In Sweden at Kalmar Castle there is a “knight” found without a shield, questioning whether it is a knight. In the Louvre there is a “Bishop” with a horn, and not with his usual crosier. In France there is a sitting pawn found, while only nobility or bishops are sitting. In Germany from Langenboben there is a “King” without his normal items showing his sovereignity, but with a helmet on his head. It deserves recommendation to review all the confusing pieces from the archeological record if they could be counts.

Watch the video: Know Thy Vestments: The Mitre, Crozier, and Cope (August 2022).