Chinese statesman (26/12 / 1893-9 / 9/1976). Born in Shaoshan. Farmer's son, he becomes a professor and works at the University of Beijing, where he comes into contact with Marxism. In 1921, he took part in the founding of the Communist Party (CCP) in Shanghai and created the People's Liberation Army (EPL), the party's armed wing.
In 1935, with the defeat of the PLA to Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), he leads the Long March - 90,000 communists take refuge in the northern part of the country, covering 9,600 kilometers in protest against the government. In 1937, Chiang entered into an agreement with Mao to fight Japan, which had invaded Manchuria in 1931.
The conflict between the two countries continues during World War II, which ends with the Japanese defeat. At the end of it, the struggles between nationalists and communists begin again. In October 1949, Mao proclaims the People's Republic of China and reorganizes the country in communist fashion. In 1958 it adopts the Great Leap Forward, a record-time development plan whose failure causes it to be removed from power by the Communist Party.
In 1966 regains power by launching the Cultural Revolution, a policy of ideological indoctrination of the population. With 20 million young people, it forms the Red Guards, a paramilitary group that unleashes colossal-scale political persecution. It resumes diplomatic relations with the United States (US) and promotes the country's entry into the UN (United Nations) in 1971. Five years later, he dies in Beijing.