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Battle of Palestrina, 9 May 1849

Battle of Palestrina, 9 May 1849

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Battle of Palestrina, 9 May 1849

The battle of Palestrina (9 May 1849) was the first of two victories won by Garibaldi over a Neapolitan force that was taking part in the siege of Rome (30 April-2 July 1849).

Pius IX had supported the Italian revolutions of 1848 and even sent an army to northern Italy where it played a minor part in the unsuccessful campaign against the Austrians. The situation in Rome soon turned against him, and in November the city broke into revolution. His chief minister was murdered on the steps of the Vatican, and the Pope fled into exile at Gaeta, a Neapolitan fortress city. Rome was declared a republic on 9 February 1849, with power shared between a triumvirate that included the republican leader Giuseppe Mazzini.

Several Catholic powered decided to restore the Pope. The French sent an army commanded by Charles Oudinot, the son of Napoleon's Marshal Nicholas Oudinot. Ferdinand II of Naples also sent an army, which arrived outside Rome at about the same time as the French. The Austrians and the Spanish also sent troops. On 30 April, with days of arriving, the French launched an attack on the city, but this attack was repulsed.

Having defeated the first French attack, the Republican leaders decided to turn on Ferdinand II of Naples, whose army was camped in the Alban Hills, south-east of Rome. Although the French had been repulsed, they were still dangerously close, and so Garibaldi could only be given 2,300 troops, some from his own Redshirt volunteers and some from other regiments of volunteers.

Ferdinand II had 10,000 men in the Alban Hills and although the Neapolitan army had a dreadful reputation Garibaldi realised that he couldn't risk a frontal assault on this force. Instead he decided to head for Palestrina, to the north-east of the Neapolitan army, from where he could threaten their right flank and divert their attention from Rome. In order to decide his opponents Garibaldi's men left Rome on 4-5 May and headed towards Tivoli, five miles further to the north. He then turned south and camped at Palestrina, from where his men probed south, brushing up against the Neapolitans.

Ferdinand decided to send around 7,000 of his men to dislodge Garibaldi from the walled town, under the command of General Lanza. Lanza decided to attack in two columns – one towards the Valmontone Gate at the south-east of the town and one towards the Roman Gate at the south-west.

The attack on the Valmontone Gate failed very quickly. Garibaldi's commander on his left, Manara, led a charge down the hill and the Neapolitans broke and fled. This meant that Garibaldi was able to use his reserves against the more dangerous attack on his right.

General Lanza made his main effort against the Roman Gate, which was defended by Garibaldi. On this wing the Neapolitans did rather better, capturing some houses just below the gate. Garibaldi's men launched a counterattack, and forced the Neapolitans out at bayonet point. After three hours of fighting the Neapolitans retreated. Lanza pulled back to Colonna on 9 May then to Frascati on 10 May.

Garibaldi and his men remained in Palestrina on the night after the battle and for most of the following day. They were then called back to Rome, where the French appeared to be on the verge of another attack. This was a false alarm, and on 15 May temporary armistice negotiations began. The French were only playing for time, but this did give the Romans time to make a second attack on the Neapolitans, winning a second battle at Velletri (19 May 1849).


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Praeneste, modern Palestrina, ancient city of Latium, located 23 miles east-southeast of Rome on a spur of the Apennines, home of the great temple to Fortuna Primigenia. After the Gallic invasion (390 bc ), Praeneste fought many battles with Rome defeated in the Latin War (340–338), it lost part of its territory and became Rome’s ally. After 90 bc it received Roman citizenship and became a municipium. In the civil wars the younger Marius was blockaded in the town by the Sullans (82 bc ), who took the city, massacred its males, and settled a colony of Sulla’s veterans on part of its territory, moving the remainder of the people to lower ground.

Under the empire, Praeneste became a favourite summer resort of wealthy Romans, including Augustus, Hadrian, and the younger Pliny.

The city was a major cultic centre for the worship of the goddess Fortuna Primigenia. Her sanctuary and temple oracle were surrounded by an immense complex of buildings rising up the hillside like a pyramid of terraces, visible even from the sea. The cult was flourishing by 241 bc , but the time during which the great buildings were constructed is a matter of debate.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

Actium (31 BCE)

Naval Battle of Actium (31 BCE): the decive battle in the last of the civil wars of the Roman Republic. Octavian defeated Mark Antony and founded the monarchy.

After the violent death of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, civil war broke out between on the one hand the assassins, republicans like Brutus and Cassius, and on the other hand the Caesarians, led by Mark Antony and Octavian. Mark Antony, one of the best generals of his age and beloved like a god by his men, overcame the last republicans in 42 at Philippi, and started to reorganize the eastern half of the Roman empire. Meanwhile, Octavian accepted the west.

The relations between the two men had never been friendly, but they tried to make the best of it Octavian married his sister Octavia Minor to Mark Antony, who for a while lived without his oriental mistress Cleopatra VII Philopator, the queen of Ptolemaic Egypt. However, he returned to her and it was even discovered (in a probably forged document) that Antony had committed treason: he wanted to give her Roman land.

/> Portrait of Octavian (Augustus)

This was the excuse Octavian needed to declare war. He had probably prepared it for some time: in the preceding years, he had annexed Dalmatia, which would offer him a land road from Italy and Gaul to the Balkans, and was almost certainly a preliminary to a war against Antony.

In 32, Cleopatra and Antony started to sail to the northwest, where they wintered in Ephesus, to proceed to Greece and Epirus. Their navy consisted of 230 vessels and 50,000 sailers their army may have counted as many as 23 legions (paper strength 115,000 men) and auxiliary troops. Antony's plan was to cross to Italy, but his advance was halted when Octavian sailed to the east with about 100 ships and landed in Dalmatia. He could also muster 24 legions, or 120,000 soldiers (paper strength). With this army, he now marched to the south, and established a bridgehead at the Gulf of Ambracia, immediately north of the entrance.

At the same time, Octavian's trusted right-hand man Agrippa sailed to the western Peloponnese with 300 war galleys, and occupied several positions. This manoeuver cut off Antony's line of communication and made it difficult to supply his immense army. Having done this, Agrippa sailed to the north, established another important base at Patras, and finally joined Octavian.

In the meantime, Antony had reached the entrance of the Gulf of Ambracia too, hoping that Octavian would offer battle, which he refused. Antony occupied the southern peninsula, called Actium , "promontory", and proceeded to build a bridge to the northern promontory, where he built a second camp. However, Octavian refused to be lured into battle - and wisely so, because Mark Antony was by far the better commander.

Time was on Octavian's side. The operations of Agrippa had isolated the army of Antony and Cleoptatra, and hunger was beginning to wear out Antony's men. This forced him to fight at sea: he had to break out from the Gulf of Ambracia. This was to Octavian's advantage: his friend Agrippa was an excellent admiral, whereas Mark Antony had never shown himself to be a capable commander at sea.

The decisive battle was fought on 2 September 31, during the afternoon, when the northern winds, which are common on the Mediterranean Sea, would favor Antony's break-out plan. Octavian and Agrippa strengthened the wings of their navy, because they wanted to prevent Antony from outflanking them. Antony, however, wanted to break away, and ordered the main attack through the weakened center. And indeed, when the battle began, Antony's center defeated the center of Agrippa and Octavian, which was commanded by Lucius Arruntius.

Map of the naval battle of Actium

Cleopatra's ships - which contained the treasury - quickly passed through the gap, followed by Antony's ships, which had been stationed on the right wing. Having reached the open sea, Antony and Cleopatra ordered their ships to raise the sails, and go to the south, benefiting from the increasing northern wind.

After the flight of their commander, the remainder of Antony's navy was seriously demoralized, and was defeated by Agrippa, Octavian, and Marcus Lurius. The Greek historian Cassius Dio offers a terrible description of the way in which the ships from Italy, which were lighter and easier to turn, attacked the large galleys from the east with catapults, torches were shot to the ships of Antony, and in the end, his fleet burned to destruction. note [Dio, Roman History 50.32-35.]

Antony had won a tactical victory: he had broken away from the Gulf of Ambracia - but at the same time, he had suffered a strategic defeat, because he had lost his army, lost his reputation as an honest commander who would never abandon his men, and lost any chance to win the war. Antony's legionaries immediately surrendered to Octavian.

Corinth, Monument for Octavian's victory at Actium

Actium, Prow from a ship, found near Actium

Apollonia, Relief to commemorate the battle of Actium

Praeneste, Relief commemorating the battle of Actium

During the winter, Antony's allies started to switch sides (e.g., Herod of Judaea), and in 30, Octavian pursued his enemies to Egypt. When he laid siege to Alexandria, Mark Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Now, Octavian could start his one-man rule, calling himself Augustus. He was to be in charge of the empire for more than forty years, long enough to make people accustomed to it and to forget the violence of his coup.

The battle of Actium became an important part of the imperial propaganda. The poet Virgil devoted some of his finest lines to a description of the battle. note [Virgil, Aeneid 8.676-709.] Monuments to commemorate his victory were erected in several cities (e.g., Corinth, Miletus, Palestrina), but the largest one was founded on the site of his camp on the northern peninsula: a new city called Nicopolis , "victory town", a name inspired by a city founded in the Punjab by Alexander the Great.

The relief from Palestrina shown on the last photo also commemorates the end of the civil war, but at the same time covers up what really happened. The crocodile is the symbol of Egypt, as if the war was a fight against a foreign enemy. But it was, of course, a civil war: Roman was fighting against Roman, and Cleopatra was nothing but a faithful ally of one of the Romans.

Historical Events in 1848

    King of Naples grants his subjects a constitution Sicily accepts new Constitution (choose parliament/freedom of press) 1st ship load of Chinese immigrants arrive in San Francisco Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican–American War: US acquires Texas, California, New Mexico and Arizona for $15 million Ballet "Faust" premieres at La Scala in Milan Sarah Roberts barred from white school in Boston Tuscany gets liberal Constitution

Event of Interest

Feb 21 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish "The Communist Manifesto" in London

Event of Interest

Mar 3 American education reformer Horace Mann joins the US Senate, representing Massachusetts

    Sardinia-Piemonte gets new Constitution Carlo Alberto di Savoia signs the Statuto Albertino that will later represent the first constitution of the Regno d'Italia Louis Antoine Garnier-Pages is named French minister of Finance In Hawaii, Great Mahele (division of lands) signed Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin become the first Prime Ministers of the Province of Canada to be democratically elected under a system of responsible government 2nd Republic established in France A revolution breaks out in Hungary. The Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the Reform party. The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded. State of siege proclaimed in Amsterdam John Parker Paynard originates medicated adhesive plaster

Niagara Falls Stops Flowing

Mar 29 Niagara Falls stops flowing for 30 hours due to an ice jam

The flow of water stops completely over both of Niagara's two falls due to an ice jam in the upper river

Historic Expedition

Apr 3 German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt is seen for the last time at McPherson's Station, Coogoon, before he disappears on the same expedition to reach the Swan River in Australia

    Jews of Prussia granted equality 1st battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians Battle at Xaquixaguana, Peru: Pedro de la Gasca beats Gonzalo Pizarro

Event of Interest

Apr 26 Alfred Russel Wallace departs the U.K. for South America, beginning four years of travel, collecting, and research in the region

    Slavery abolished in French colonies The Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta is founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania Otto Tank ends slavery in Suriname colony Prussians stop insurrection in Varsovia First performance of Finland's national anthem Gerrit, Count Schimmelpenninck resigns as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Netherlands Opening of the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung) in Frankfurt, Germany Battle at Curtazone: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte Wisconsin becomes 30th US state Second Battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians William G Young patents ice cream freezer Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo between US and Mexico comes into force, giving New Mexico, California and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Colorado to the US in return for $15 million The Slavic congress in Prague begins. Statue of prince William the Silent, Prince of Orange by Lodewyk Royer unveiled in The Hague's Het Plein New York Yacht Club holds its first annual regatta won by the schooner Carnelia 1st telegraph link between NYC & Chicago Battle at Vicenza: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte

Presidential Convention

Jun 22 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party nominates Martin Van Buren for President

    Beginning of the June Days uprising in Paris by French workers Bloody insurrection of workers in Paris 1st pure food law enacted in US End of the June Days uprising in Paris by French workers Slaves freed in Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands) Edmund Hickly gets 1st known 10 wicket innings (Kent v England) London's Waterloo Station opens

Conference of Interest

Jul 19 1st US women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls NY, organised by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott

    German Parliament demands Dutch province of Limburg Battle of Custoza-Italian War of Independence, starts 1st battle at Custozza: Austrians under Radetzky beat Italian Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt - an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule put down by police Austria & Sardinia sign cease fire US Barnburners (anti-slavery) party merges with Free Soil Party nominating Martin Van Buren for president Oregon Territory created M Waldo Hanchett patents dental chair Camila O'Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez are executed on the orders of Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas The United States annexes New Mexico National Black Convention meets in Cleveland

WHSmith: a Retail Giant Born From a Widow's Might

Nov 1 WHSmith opens its 1st railway bookstall, at Euston Station in London

Retail pioneer William Henry Smith and one of the station bookstalls that spread across the UK in the last century

Election of Interest

Nov 7 General Zachary Taylor elected as 12th President of US

    Post office at Clay & Pike opens, 1st in San Francisco Robert Blum, a German revolutionary and MP (Liberal), is executed in Vienna. Alfred de Musset's "Andre del Sarto" premieres in Paris Cincinnati Turngemeinde founded Female Medical Educational Society forms in Boston

Event of Interest

Dec 2 Franz Joseph I becomes Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia

Scientific Discovery

Dec 5 US President James K. Polk triggers Gold Rush of 1849 by confirming a gold discovery in California

Second War of Italian Unification : 1859-60

Sardinia's direct assault approach against Austria had failed, but in 1852, Cavour became Prime Minister, and began a more diplomatic approach to unifying Italy. He realized Sardinia could not beat Austria without the help of other powers, so he made a strategic alliance with England and France. Eventually he came up with a strategy by which France, under Napoleon III , would help overthrow Austria in Lombardy and Venice, and Sardinia would cede Savoy and Nice to France. This plan worked much better, and at the battle of Solferino, France defeated Austria and forced them into negotiations. The final settlement, by which Lombardy was annexed to Sardinia, but Austria was left in control of Venice, was negotiated mainly between the French and Austrians. The process by which Parma, Modena, and Tuscany were integrated into the "United Provinces of Central Italy", was also accomplished by behind-the-scenes diplomacy.

The "victory" of Sardinia in the Second War of Italian Unification was affected almost entirely by statesmanship, rather than by arms, or by popular election. The final arrangement, by which Sardinia annexed most of Northern Italy in exchange for ceding Savoy and Nice to France, was worked out by way of back-room deals rather than the battlefield, because neither France, Austria, or Sardinia wanted to risk another battle, and none was certain that popular opinion favored their schemes. In March of 1860, all of North Italy except Vienna was annexed into the Kingdom of Sardinia, with Victor Emmanuel II as king. In spite of the peaceful resolution, all sides were unhappy with the outcome and all expected continued conflict in the future.

DateBattle Summary
1859 Battle of Montebello ( 2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought May 20, 1859, between the Austrians, under General Stadion, and about 7,000 French, under General Forey. The Austrians were defeated and driven back to Stradella, with a loss of 2,000 killed and wounded, and 200 prisoners.
1859 Battle of Varese ( 2nd Italian Unity ) Patriots victory
Fought May 25, 1859, between 3,000 Garibaklians, under Garibaldi, and 5,000 Austrians, under General Urban. The Austrians were repulsed after hard fighting, and suffered considerable loss. This action is also known as the Battle of Malnate.
1859 Battle of Palestro ( 2nd Italian Unity ) Sardinians victory
Fought May 30, 1859, between the Sardinians, under General Cialdini, and the Austrians, under General Stadion. The Austrians attacked the Sardinians while they were crossing the Sesia, but were repulsed, and Cialdini effected the passage successfully and drove the Austrians out of Palestro with considerable loss.
1859 Battle of Turbigo ( 2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought June 3, 1859, when the advance guard of Marshal Macmahon's corps, under the Marshal in person, was attacked by a portion of the Austrian division of Clam-Gallas, while simultaneously 4,000 Austrians assailed the bridge over the canal near the Ticino, which the French main body was crossing. After severe fighting both attacks were repulsed with considerable loss.
1859 Battle of Magenta ( 2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought June 4, 1859, between the 2nd French Corps d'Armee, under Macmahon, and the main Austrian army, under Marshal Giulay, about 100,000 strong. Macmahon attacked the Austrian position, and, after hard fighting, drove them out of Magenta, and totally defeated them with a loss of about 6,000 killed and wounded. The French lost 4,400.
1859 Battle of Malegnano ( 2nd Italian Unity ) French victory
Fought June 8, 1859, between three French divisions, under Marshal Baraguay d'Hilhers, and the Austrians, in about equal force. After three hours' hard fighting, the Austrians were defeated and driven out of Malegnano, with heavy loss, including 1,000 prisoners. The French lost 850 killed and wounded.
1859 Battle of Solferino ( Expedition of the Thousand ) French victory
Fought June 24, 1859, between 150,000 Austrians, under the Emperor Francis Joseph, with Generals Wimpffen and Scholick in actual command. and the French and Piedmontese, under Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel. The French attacked the Austrian position on the heights round Solferino, which were held by Scholick, and after very hard fighting, they were captured by the corps of Macmahon and Baraguay d'Hilliers. Meanwhile Wimpffen, with three Army Corps, attacked the French left, but was held at bay throughout the day by Marshal Niel's corps, and when night fell, the Austrian centre being broken, Francis Joseph had no option but to retreat, and consequently recrossed the Mincio. The Austrians lost 22,000 killed, wounded and missing. The allies' losses were 18,000, of which number the Piedmontese corps of 25,000 lost 4,000.

Commander Short Biography
First elected president of the Third French Republic. Conservative popular with both Monarchists and Bonapartists.
Nephew of Napoleon, elected emperor of France after revolution of 1848. Deposed after disastrous Franco-Prussian War.

Mexican-American War: 1846-48

On May 13, 1846, the U.S. Congress voted in favor of President James Polk’s request to declare war on Mexico in a dispute over Texas. Under the threat of war, theUnited States had refrained from annexing Texas after the latter won independence from Mexico in 1836. But in 1844, President John Tyler (1790-1862) restarted negotiations with the Republic of Texas, culminating with a treaty of annexation.

Did you know? During his presidency, James Polk managed another important land acquisition, this time without a war, when his administration diplomatically settled a border dispute with the British and gained control of the present-day states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, plus parts of Montana and Wyoming.

The treaty was defeated by a wide margin in the U.S. Senate because it would upset the slave state-free state balance between North and South and risked war with Mexico, which had broken off relations with the United States. But shortly before leaving office and with the support of President-elect Polk (1795-1849), Tyler managed to get a congressional resolution passed and then, on March 1, 1845, signed into law. Texas was admitted to the union on December 29 of that year.

While Mexico didn’t follow through with its threat to declare war, relations between the two nations remained tense over border disputes, and in July 1845, President Polk ordered troops into disputed lands that lay between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers. In November, Polk sent the diplomat John Slidell (1793-1871) to Mexico to seek boundary adjustments in return for the U.S. government’s settlement of the claims of American citizens against Mexico and also to make an offer to purchase California and New Mexico. After the mission failed, the U.S. Army under General Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) advanced to the mouth of the Rio Grande, the river that the state of Texas claimed as its southern boundary.

Mexico, claiming that the boundary was the Nueces Riverto the northeast of the Rio Grande, considered the advance of Taylor’s army an act of aggression and in April 1846 sent troops across the Rio Grande. Polk, in turn, declared the Mexican advance to be an invasion of U.S. soil, and on May 11, 1846, asked Congress to declare war on Mexico, which it did two days later.

Legends of America

Just north of the Canadian River, in what is now northeast Hutchinson County, Texas, is the site of Adobe Walls. This was the name given to a couple of trading posts and later, a ranching community. The first trading post was built by the Bent, St. Vrain and Company in about 1843. Comprised of William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain, the chief partners in the firm, and a number of traders, the company hoped to introduce peaceful trade with the Comanche and Kiowa tribes. The company’s main trading post, Bent’s Fort, was located near present-day La Junta, Colorado, but the Comanche and Kiowa tribes avoided the area, as their enemies, the Cheyenne and Arapaho, lived in the region.

The new satellite post was situated on a stream that became known as Bent’s (now Bent) Creek. Here, company traders first worked from teepees and later, from log structures. In September 1845, Lieutenant James W. Abert and his surveying party left the Canadian River to travel southeast toward the North Fork of the Red River.

Sometime around 1846, William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain arrived with Mexican adobe makers to replace the log establishment with Fort Adobe, a structure that was 80 feet square, with nine-foot walls and only one entrance. However, due to continued Indian hostility in the area, the occupation of Fort Adobe was sporadic and in 1848 it was closed. That fall, a momentary peace was made with the Indians, and Bent sought to reopen the post by sending Christopher “Kit” Carson, Lucien Maxwell, and five employees to the Canadian River. But, the group encountered resistance from the Jicarilla Apache and were forced to hide the trade goods and buffalo robes they had acquired and returned to Bent’s Fort. A short time later, several members of the Comanche tribe persuaded William Bent to make another try at resuming trade at Fort Adobe. Bent agreed and soon sent a 13-man party led by Dick Wootton, back to Fort Adobe. The group was finally able to conduct trade with the Comanche through a window cut in the wall.

In the spring of 1849, Bent made a trip to Fort Adobe, accompanied by several ox-drawn wagons. However, after part of his stock was killed by hostile Indians, he had finally had enough. He soon blew up the fort, abandoning trade in the Texas Panhandle, and returned to Colorado. The ruins then became a familiar landmark to anyone determined to venture through the hostile country.

The expeditions of Randolph B. Marcy in 1849 and Amiel W. Whipple in 1853 traveled by Adobe Walls during their surveys of the Canadian River Valley.

First Battle of Adobe Walls (1864)

In 1864, Brigadier General James H. Carleton, commanding the Department of New Mexico, wanted to eliminate the Indian attacks on white settlers traveling along the Santa Fe Trail into New Mexico Territory. To accomplish this, he soon sent Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson, fresh from victories over the Apache and Navajo of New Mexico, to punish the Kiowa and Comanche for raiding along the trails.

Leading 336 California and New Mexico Volunteers and 75 Ute and Jicarilla Apache auxiliaries, Carson led an attack against a nearby Kiowa village on November 25, 1864. Afterward, he and his men rested at the ruins of Adobe Walls. The next day, the Kiowa, now joined with the Comanche counter-attacked Carson and his men at Adobe Walls. Though the Indians numbered more than 1,000, Carson and his men were able to hold their position with two howitzers.

At dusk, the troops burned one of the camps and retreated to their base at Fort Bascom, New Mexico. Three of Carson’s men were killed and 15 were wounded. Indian casualties totaled 60. Carson was acclaimed as a hero for fighting one of the largest engagements on the Great Plains, against far greater odds, and with minimal casualties.

Second Battle of Adobe Walls (1874)

A decade after the First Battle of Adobe Walls, several merchants from Dodge City, Kansas following the buffalo hunters south into the Texas Panhandle, established a large complex, called the Myers and Leonard Store, near the Fort Adobe ruins. The business included a corral and restaurant, with the primary purpose of serving the ever-increasing influx of buffalo hunters in the area. In April 1874 a second store, operated by Charles Rath and Company, was opened, and shortly afterward, James N. Hanrahan and Charles Rath opened a saloon, and Tom O’Keefe started a blacksmith shop. By the end of spring, 200 to 300 buffalo hunters roamed the area, and trade at Adobe Walls was booming.

Of those Indians that remained in the area, they correctly perceived the post and the buffalo hunting as a major threat to their existence. In the spring, the Indians held a Sun Dance, where Comanche medicine man, Isa-tai, foretold a victory to the warriors who participated in a battle to rid the buffalo hunters.

Early in the morning of June 27, 1874, a combined force of some 700 Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho warriors, led by Comanche Chief Quanah Parker and Isa-tai, attacked the buffalo camp. The hunters took refuge in two stores and a saloon.

Though the post held only 28 men, including Old West characters, Bat Masterson and Billy Dixon, Isa-tai’s prophecy proved to be an illusion. Despite being dramatically outnumbered, the hunters’ superior weapons repelled the Indian assault. Dixon, fighting from inside James Hanrahan’s saloon, is said to have made a historical shot, becoming a hero two days into the battle, when a bullet from his Sharps buffalo rifle knocked an Indian off his horse nearly a mile away, but this was perhaps exaggerated. Dixon himself never claimed credit for his “long shot.”

The Silenced Warwhoop by Charles Schreyvogel, 1908

After four days of continuous battle, about 100 men arrived to reinforce the post and the Indians soon retreated. While estimates vary as to the losses, as many as 70 Indians were killed and many others, including Parker, were wounded.

The result of Adobe Walls was not only a crushing spiritual defeat for the Indians, but it also led to the Red River War of 1874-75 that would end in the final relocation of the Southern Plains Indians to reservations.

In August, during the ensuing Red River War, a detachment of troops under Lieutenant Francis “Frank” D. Baldwin fought off a party of 15 Indians near the beleaguered post, which was abandoned by October and later burned by the Indians. In 1876 Hutchinson County was established and the area was opened to white settlement.

Settlement of Adobe Walls

Dixon Home near Adobe Walls, Texas

In the early 1880s, James M. Coburn established the Turkey Track Ranch, with his headquarters near the old battle site. He persuaded William “Billy” Dixon, a scout and survivor of the Second Battle of Adobe Walls, to homestead several sections nearby. Dixon built his house at the ruins of Fort Adobe. In August 1887 a post office was established at the Dixon homestead, where Dixon and business partner, S. G. Carter also operated a ranch-supply store. Dixon served as postmaster until 1901, when he was elected as Hutchinson County’s first sheriff. He resigned shortly afterward, disgusted at the political strife aroused in connection with the organization of the county. In 1902, Dixon moved to Plemons so that his children could attend school. Four years later, in 1906, he moved his family to the Oklahoma Panhandle.

A school was established sometime in the early part of the 20th century. Documents note that a teacher named Herbert Butts taught here in 1912 for $45 per month. The first school building burned down in about 1920 and school children then attended classes temporarily on the second floor of Billy Dixon’s old home on the Turkey Track Ranch. Later, another school was built. Although the Dodge City Times advertised Adobe Walls as “a fine settlement with some twenty families,” there never was a real community in the area even though it had a school and a post office, which served the area ranchers, their employees, and families. The post office remained in operation until October 1921.

During the 1920s several local and state projects were launched to mark the battle site at Adobe Walls and in 1923, the Panhandle-Plains Historical Society acquired a six-acre tract that contained the remains of the 1874 trading post. On June 27, 1929, William “Billy” Dixon’s remains, which previously rested in the cemetery at Texline, were re-interred at the Adobe Walls site. Years later, in the 1970s, the society conducted major archeological excavations at the site. In 1978 the complex was added to the National Register of Historic Places and recognized as a Texas state archeological landmark.

Adobe Walls Historic Marker

From 1940 until 1970 Adobe Walls was listed in the Texas Almanac as having a population of fifteen. Today, there is nothing left of Adobe Walls, but, several markers, monuments, and the grave of William “Billy” Dixon. The Adobe Walls Springs, which were located west of the monument, are dried up today.

Main sights

The modern town of Palestrina is centered on the terraces once occupied by the massive temple of Fortuna. The town came to largely obscure the temple, whose monumental remains were revealed as a result of American bombing of German positions in World War II. The town also contains remnants of ancient cyclopean walls.

On the summit of the hill at 753 metres (2,470 ft), nearly 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) from the town, stood the ancient citadel, the site of which is now occupied by a few poor houses (Castel San Pietro) and a ruined medieval castle of the Colonna family. The view embraces the Monte Soratte, Rome, the Alban Hills, and the Pontinian Plain as far as the sea. Considerable portions of the southern wall of the ancient citadel, built in massive cyclopean masonry consisting of limestone blocks, are still visible and the two walls, also polygonal, which formerly united the citadel with the town, can still be traced.

A calendar, which according to Suetonius was set up by the grammarian Marcus Verrius Flaccus in the imperial forum of Praeneste (at the Madonna dell'Aquila), was discovered in 1771 in the ruins of the church of Saint Agapitus, where it had been used as building material.

The cathedral, just below the level of the temple, occupies the former civil basilica of the town, whose façade includes a sundial described by Varro, traces of which may still be seen. In the modern piazza the steps leading up to this basilica and the base of a large monument were found in 1907 evidently only part of the piazza represents the ancient forum. The cathedral has fine paintings and frescoes. In the Church of Santa Rosalia (1677) there is a noteworthy Pietà, carved in the solid rock.

The National Archeological Museum of Palestrina is housed inside the Renaissance Barberini Palace, the former baronial palace, built above the ancient temple of Fortuna. It exhibits the most important works from the ancient town of Praeneste. The famous sculpture of the Capitoline Triad is exhibited on the first floor. The second floor is dedicated to the necropoli and sanctuaries, while the third floor contains a large polychrome mosaic depicting the flooding of the Nile (Nile mosaic of Palestrina).

1840 to 1849 Important News, Key Events, Significant Technology

British Colonists Arrive In New Zealand , The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840. The British government had sent a representative to New Zealand to calm Maori tribesmen. At Waitangi, in February 1840, the majority of the Maori chiefs agreed to cede sovereignty of the islands to Queen Victoria. In exchange for this they wanted the precedence of own lands and a guarantee of protection.

First Postage Stamp , Under a number of reforms proposed by Sir Rowland Hill including a standard price for sending a letter (prior to this, it was the person who received the letter who paid how much was due depending on weight and distance traveled). In 1840, the first stamp is issued which featured a black and white portrait of Queen Victoria costing one penny (more often referred to as the "Penny Black").

The First Afghan War , The British Army's occupation of Kabul and other areas was set off by a number of difficulties that were started by the insurrection. The insurrection followed after the stoppage of subsidies that were paid to the tribal chiefs. Alexander Burnes, the British political agent, was murdered in November and the embassy was overrun by the Ghilzais. Sir William MacNaghten, the senior British envoy, was killed in December.

Wagon Trains Start The Journey To California , Covered Wagon Trains took immigrants on a journey from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California. The trip was about 2,000 miles and each night the Covered Wagon Train would form a circle for shelter from wind and extreme weather, they would put all the animals in the center to prevent them from running away or being stolen by Native Americans.

Britain takes Hong Kong , Hong Kong Island was handed to Britain by China in 1842's Treaty of Nanking. Although, it was not until after the Second Opium War that the European government gained a larger part of the harbor. It was the First Opium War that had made it an important port to the British merchants, and it was appointed a Crown dependency. Hong Kong was, in the treaty, ceded to Britain in perpetuity, but in 1997 Hong Kong was handed back to China and went back to Chinese Rule.

Massachusetts Child Employment Laws , Massachusetts became the first state to pass laws limiting how many hours a child laborer could be forced to work. The new laws limited a child under the age of twelve's workday to a maximum of 10 hrs.

The Oregon Trail , The first 'wagon train' was the wave of migration that started in 1843, and had followed John Bidwell's 1841 train, and Elijah White's 1842 expedition to Oregon. The 1843 wagon train was comprised of about nine hundred people. Bidwell's immigrants had been split on going to California and Oregon. The definition of this as the first wagon train is made by its number of participants. The earlier ones had only been small expeditionary groups.

Morse's first electronic telegram , Samuel Morse had created an electromagnetic telegraph in 1836 and he had written the code that was to be transferred on it. Morse Code used dots, dashes and spaces to represent the letters of the alphabet. The U.S. government had requested a line be built between Baltimore and Washington, and it sent the first message on May 24th, 1844. The code also represents numbers.

The U.S. Naval Academy of Annapolis , The U.S. Naval Academy of Annapolis was founded in 1845 for officers of the U.S. Navy and Marines. It was started by the Secretary of the U.S. Navy, George Bancroft, who had moved the Philadelphia Naval Asylum School to what had been the Army's Fort Severn. Its first class had comprised of fifty midshipmen.

Florida Becomes The 27th state of the United States of America , On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state of the United States of America. At that time Florida was best known for it's cotton plantations because the climate suited the crop well.

Texas Becomes The 28th state of the United States of America , Texas, after gaining independence from Mexico in 1836 , became the largest state in the contiguous United States in 1845.

Baseball Rules Defined For First Time , The New York Knickerbockers are formed and define a set of rules similar to the game today. There is major dispute over who first created Baseball. Because of games like "town ball" played in many Northern states, many believe that the game of Baseball called "Town Ball" as played today originated in Philadelphia in 1833 .

The Rubber Band , One Year after Charles Goodyear had patented vulcanized rubber, Stephen Perry patents the Rubber Band.

1920's Fashion

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Oregon splits from England , Oregon's border to Canada is set to the 49th Parallel in 1846, which was the same year that its lands were separated from the United Kingdom. You should note that the earlier Oregon Country was the land that ran between the California and Alaska coastlines. It wasn't until after the separation from England, and its incorporation into the United States that its current boundaries were set.

Iowa Becomes The 29th state of the United States of America , Iowa, formerly part of the French controlled Louisiana, became part of the United States following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. It became the Territory of Iowa in 1833 and a US state in 1846.

U.S. - Mexican War 1846 to 1848 , After Texas became a US state the year before, the United States and Mexico go to war over the disputed area. American forces invade and conquer New Mexico, California and parts of Northern Mexico. Another American army captured Mexico City, forcing Mexico to agree to the sale of its Northern territories to the U.S for $15 million.

U.S. - First official Game Of Baseball , The first official game played under New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club rules was on June 19, 1846 in Hoboken, New Jersey, between the Knickerbockers and the New York Base Ball Club (with the Knickerbockers losing 23-1). Find Out More About The Origins and History Of Major League Baseball including origins, records, great players and the modern game.

Smithsonian Institution , is established as an educational and research institute it is administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment. The Smithsonian institute was funded by the British scientist James Smithson, who had never visited the United States himself, as an "Establishment for the increase & diffusion of Knowledge among men." The work on the Smithsonian Institution Building on the National Mall started in 1846 and was completed in 1855 .

Jane Eyre published , Jane Eyre was published in October of 1847. The book by Charlotte Brontë used its autobiographical means to talk about the social interaction that was beyond the period's literary discourse. Objections to the book were common, and Brontë had used a male pseudonym, Currer Bell, because of the public's inability to appreciate its author being a woman. Jane's discussions of fidelity, hypocrisy and Rochester's numerous liaisons was more than its readers could appreciate at the time.

Mormon Followers Led By Brigham Young Arrive in Utah , Followers of "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", more commonly referred to as the Mormon Church, arrive in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City is still home to the headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) and over 50% of the population are still practicing members of the church today.

Chloroform Used As General Anaesthetic , Obstetrician James Young Simpson first used chloroform for general anesthesia during childbirth. Prominent churchmen objected and quoted Genesis "God Intended Women to Suffer Pain During Childbirth." But the next year, when giving birth to her seventh child, Queen Victoria asked for Chloroform to ease her labor pains. Chloroform went on to be used during surgery around the world.

Antiseptic Use In Hospital , Surgeon Joseph Lister (Scotland) begins cleaning wounds, surgical equipment and insists his surgical team clean hands with Carbolic Acid prior to operating. The number of patients who then became infected decreased considerably and the process was adopted around the world revolutionizing medical care.

The California Gold Rush starts , It was James Marshall that found the first nugget on January 30th, 1848 at Coloma. His find was to draw half a million people to California, and his initial discovery meant that other prospectors were able to uncover beds on the Trinity and Feather rivers. The Gold Rush is said to have taken place between 1848 and 1855.

Wisconsin Becomes The 30th state of the United States of America , Wisconsin Territory was organized in 1836 and Wisconsin gained statehood in 1848.

Hungary splits from Austria , Engels described the revolutionary struggle of 1848 and 1849 as an act of terrorism by the Austrian government, and a degree of oppression was forced onto the Hungarians. His criticism of the Habsburgs is par for the course, and their beating of the Magyars only served as an inspiration to the other revolutionaries. Freed of Metternich, the Czechs, Poles, Moravians, Slovaks, Magyars, Rutherians, Romanians, Illyrians, Serbs and Croats were starting to see a degree of freedom (in which they started attacking each other). The Masses went to Pest (which is on the eastern side of Budapest) and pushed the Austrians for a reform. With the threat of revolution looming, the Austrian governors had no choice but to accept the Hungarian demands. The House of Habsburg was dethroned and, in an era of excitement, the first Republic of Hungary was born. After the revolution was suppressed, the Austrian Emperor settled everything down, and their advisors went on to manipulate the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry into a revolt against against the Hungarian government.

The Safety Pin , American inventor Walter Hunt patented the Safety Pin, then quickly sold his rights for $400.00.

Hungarian Revolution of 1848

At the time of the revolution, Hungary already had its own parliament and considerable autonomy, but European liberals of the 19th century sought after the idea of national sovereignty, and the Hapsburg empire, regardless of any compromise or reforms it could offer, stood in the way. The idea of nationalism for Hungary however, was especially complicated since the geographical area known as Hungary included many different ethnic groups with conflicting loyalties. In addition to Magyars, the region included Slavs, Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes, some of whom were loyal to Austria and opposed the Hungarian movement for independence. Soon after Louis Kossuth declared an independent Kingdom of Hungary, the Croats rebelled against the Hungarians and declared their loyalty to Austria. The first fighting in the Hungarian revolution was between the Croats and Magyars, and Austria's intervention on the part of their loyal Croatian subjects caused an upheaval in Vienna.

The rebellion in Hungary might have been easily put down if it was an isolated event. But because it was timed to coincide with revolutions in Vienna and Italy, the Austrian government was unable to respond effectively. Austria did not have the military resources to put down four simultaneous rebellions, so it made generous promises to the leader in Hungary in order to buy time. Even with Austria's concessions, however, the Hungarians opted for rebellion. They mustered a volunteer army and won several early victories. Most of the Slavs in the region, however, opposed Hungarian independence, so Austria called upon Russia to intervene. The ill-equipped Magyar patriots could not withstand the vastly superior Russian force, and the Hungarian revolution was quickly brought to an end.

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