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Chile National Air Transport System - History

Chile National Air Transport System - History



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CHile

number of registered air carriers: 9 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 173 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,006,762 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,392,236,000 mt-km (2015)
CC (2016)

481 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 14
Airports - with paved runways: T
total: 90 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 31 (2017)
under 914 m: 24 (2017)
total: 391 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 56 (2013)
under 914 m: 319 (2013)
Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. Pipelines field listing
3160 km gas, 781 km liquid petroleum gas, 985 km oil, 722 km refined products (2013)

total: 7,282 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 3,853.5 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
broad gauge: 3,428 km 1.676-m gauge (1,691 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 30
Roadways:
total: 77,801 km (2016)
country comparison to the world: 62
Merchant marine:
total: 221
by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 5, general cargo 51, oil tanker 14, other 144 (2019)
country comparison to the world: 63
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso
container port(s) (TEUs): San Antonio (1,296,890), Valparaiso (1,073,734) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mejillones, Quintero


Chile National Air Transport System - History

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

severe earthquakes active volcanism tsunamis

volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains Lascar (5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes Llaima (3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica see note 2 under "Geography - note"

note 1: the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 39 degrees of latitude strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

note 2: Chile is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: the Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country the small crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m)

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.

Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.

This is the population pyramid for Chile. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

note: Chile has three time zones: the continental portion at UTC-3 the southern Magallanes region, which does not use daylight savings time and remains at UTC-3 for the summer months and Easter Island at UTC-5

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

note: design influenced by the US flag

note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847 under Augusto PINOCHET's military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990

Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some 60% of total exports. Copper is Chile’s top export and provides 20% of government revenue.

From 2003 through 2013, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite a slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Growth slowed to an estimated 1.4% in 2017. A continued drop in copper prices prompted Chile to experience its third consecutive year of slow growth.

Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, effective 1 January 2004. Chile has 26 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the EU, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. In May 2010, Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. In October 2015, Chile signed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, which was finalized as the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and signed at a ceremony in Chile in March 2018.

The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, under which it accumulates surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allows deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of 31 October 2016, those sovereign wealth funds - kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves - amounted to more than $23.5 billion. Chile used these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn.

In 2014, then-President Michelle BACHELET introduced tax reforms aimed at delivering her campaign promise to fight inequality and to provide access to education and health care. The reforms are expected to generate additional tax revenues equal to 3% of Chile’s GDP, mostly by increasing corporate tax rates to OECD averages.


Chile National Air Transport System - History

Santiago is the capital of Chile and its largest city. Due to Chile’s economic growth during the past decades Santiago has become one of Latin America’s most modern cities. Its urban area or Greater Santiago, which includes the Commune of Santiago, has a population of over 5 million people who are called Santiaguinos. The Metropolitan area has about 7 million inhabitants.

Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, was founded by Spanish conqueror Pedro Valdivia on February 12 th , 1541. Today the capital of Chile is a world class city with a cosmopolitan culture and modern telecommunications networks it is the nation’s business, political, cultural, entertainment and educational center. The landscape of its financial center is filled with skyscrapers where many multinationals and banks have established their regional headquarters.

Santiago financial center

Location

The capital of Chile is located in the Central Valley Region of Chile at 543 meters or 1781 feet above sea level. The Central Valley is the most populated region in the country. The city rests on an inland plain between the Andes Mountains in the east and the Coastal Range in the west, it is 100 km or 62 miles from the Pacific Ocean and 40 km or 25 miles from the Andes range. Unfortunately, this geographical location traps smog during the winter months from June to September. However you do not have to travel far to find fresh air, just 35 miles from Santiago airport you can find skiing resorts and the beach is a bit over one hour away. The Maipo Valley, a wine producing region, is south of the city. Its central location makes Santiago a grate base for visiting other areas.

Its location makes the capital a great base for visiting other areas.

The city and its neighborhoods

Santiago is bisected by the Mapocho River which flows east to west and marks the northern border of Central Santiago. The axis of the city is the east-west Alameda or Avenida O’Higgins which runs west towards Valparaiso and east to Las Condes. Some of its 32 municipalities are very affluent and some are very poor. The capital of Chile has a larger middle class than many of other South American capitals and lower poverty rates.

The oldest part of Santiago is the Historic Center located between the Mapocho River and the Alameda. Here is where the Spanish conquistadors settled and built the city around the Plaza de Armas. In Western Santiago a neighborhood called The Quinta Normal has a number of worth visiting museums, a botanical garden and a park with sports facilities. Barrio Brasil was once a affluent neighborhood in the 1920s, today it has been revitalized by new private universities moving into the area. Northern Santiago, across the Mapocho River, is where Barrio Buenavista is located, a trendy and bohemian neighborhood with restaurants and bars considered the heart of Santiago nightlife. La Chascona, one of the houses of Pablo Neruda and now a museum, is located in Northern Santiago. Southern Santiago was an affluent residential area until their residents decided to move to the eastern part of the city. Today it is known as Barrio Universitario, a cluster of five universities that has brought new life to the area. Parque O’Higgins, Club Hipico, el Pueblito are a few of the landmarks located in the south of the city. In Eastern Santiago, the neighborhoods of Providencia and Las Condes are the modern business districts and running up against the foothills of the Andes are the most affluent suburbs of Santiago.

More about Santiago neighborhoods

Travel to Santiago

Traveling to Chile’s capital is a great journey. Most large airlines have direct flights or flights with layovers to Chile. Chile’s national airline is LAN which is part of the Oneworld Alliance which includes AmericanAirlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Finnair, Iberia, Japan Airlines, Mexicana, Quanta among others. Arturo Merino Benitez Airport is Santiago’s international airport and it is located in Pudahuel, 15 k or 9.3 miles North West of downtown Santiago.

Some countries require a valid visa to visit Chile. Check your local travel agent or contact the nearest Chilean consulate. Some travelers have to pay a fee to enter the country but only by air, there is no fee to enter by land. This is in response to a reciprocity fee that other nations charge Chileans to visit their country.

When planning your trip to Chile consider Chile’s school vacation as many services such as transportation or tours might be booked. In Chile, summer holidays start a week before Christmas and end in late February or the first week of March. Winter holidays are the last two weeks of July.

Santiago Weather

In the southern hemisphere seasons are reversed to that of the northern hemisphere. Winter is during the months of June to August and the coldest month is July when the temperature can drop to as low as 3°C or 37ºF . June is the wettest month of the year with average precipitation of 85mm or 3.3 in the form of rain, hail or snow, 80% of the yearly precipitation falls in the winter months.

Summer season is during the months of December to March and are hot and humid. The average high temperature is 30°C or 86°F and the average low 12°C or 54°F.

Fall season starts at the end of March through May and temperatures during the day can reach the mid 20°C or 68°F, evenings are cooler with temperature reaching a minimum of 7°C or 45°F.

Spring starts in September and lasts until November. Temperatures reach a maximum of 29°C or 84°C and a minimum of 12.5°C or 54.5°F.

More about weather in Santiago.

Transportation

Chile has a very modern transportation infrastructure and an extensive transportation system so many people take public transportation to work and to get around. Its underground subway system known as the Metro is South America’s longest and the second longest in Latin America after that of Mexico City. The metro has 5 lines, 108 stations and 103 km or 64 miles of track, it serves around 2,300,000 passengers a day.

The subway system is essential to the way of life of Santiaguinos

Santiago’s metro is clean, safe, efficient and inexpensive. The metro is part of Transantiago, an integrated public transport system implemented in 2005 which tried to replace an older system with technology, new buses, efficient routes and payment options. Transantiago has an integrated fare system, by using a smart Bip card it allows passengers to make transfers within the system – bus to bus or metro to bus – within a two hour limit. Single trip tickets are also available with a multiple fare structure depending on the time. Seniors and students get 35% discount.


Chile is charging ahead with electric vehicles

A massive cargo ship docked in the Chilean port of San Antonio at the end of November, carrying it its belly the first 100 electric buses from China that Chileans hope will revolutionize their public transport system.

Chile’s ambitious plan to face down its capital Santiago’s notorious smog problem includes the rollout of electric scooters, cars and taxis, as well as lorries for use in the mining industry.

Mineral-rich Chile – which is not only the world’s largest copper producer but also the second-largest producer of lithium, a key component in electric vehicle batteries – aims to increase the number of electric vehicles tenfold by 2022.

Energy minister Susana Jiménez told Reuters the government wanted electric vehicles to account for 40 per cent of Chile’s private fleet and 100 per cent of public transportation on the roads by 2050.

The initiative puts Chile at the forefront of clean mobility in Latin America as well as among developing countries worldwide.

But it represents a significant challenge given the persistently high price of electric vehicles and the paucity of charging points in the country. Chile has just 40 public charging stations – half of them in Santiago, according to the energy ministry.

Enthusiasts of the new technology prefer to focus on the pluses of clean motoring, such as the reduction in noise and air pollution as well as lower fuel costs.

The operation and maintenance costs of an electric bus are also around 70 per cent less than those of a diesel engine, according to Chile’s Ministry of Transport.

“Chile will be second only to China as a nation with the greatest quantity of electric buses in the world,” Chilean President Sebastian Pinera said at the start of November, when the government took delivery of six BMW i3 electric cars destined for ministerial use.

Studies by McKinsey and Bloomberg bear his claims out – of the 385,000 electric buses on the road worldwide last year, 99 per cent are in China.

The Netherlands and Britain have more than 300 electric buses each but they are spread among several cities rather than concentrated in one, as will be the case in Santiago.

The Chilean capital will have 200 in total, the government said. The 100 that recently arrived were manufactured by Chinese firm BYD Electronic International Co Ltd, financed by the local subsidiary of the Italian power utility Enel X and will be operated by Metbus, a private Chilean company.

Another 100 due to be added to the Santiago fleet are being financed by French energy generation firm Engie Energia Chile SA and manufactured by China’s Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Co Ltd.

Other Latin American countries are catching on.

Mexico City has a booming market in electric scooters and bicycles. It also plans to introduce between 300 and 500 electric buses.

Peru has slashed the import tax on electric vehicles to zero while Colombia is converting public diesel buses to unspecified, cleaner engines.

If the present fleets of buses and taxis spread across 22 Latin American cities were replaced by electric vehicles today, by 2030 almost $64 billion in fuel would have been saved, and 300 million tons less of carbon dioxide equivalent would have been pumped into the air, according to a UN study.

Chile offers electric vehicles exemptions from environmental tax and traffic restrictions, as well as subsidies and fast-track licensing to taxi drivers who switch to more energy efficient cars, the Ministry of Energy said.

The government is also encouraging its mining industry to look at using electric lorries, with state copper miner Codelco recently announcing a pilot scheme to introduce them.

But the electric vehicle industry remains nascent across Latin America, partly due to the high costs.

A BMW i3 equivalent to those being tested by ministers would cost around $60,000 in Chile, prohibitively expensive for most motorists in a country where the average monthly wage is $410.

Matías Asun, Greenpeace’s national director, said at the present rate of electric vehicles penetration, the government would have to take dramatic action to meet its 2050 goal.

“Our question to the government is this: From what year will it no longer allow combustion engines to be sold in Chile?” he said.


3. Transition to an energy-efficient and low-carbon economy

3.1. Energy structure, intensity and use

Energy mix

Chile’s energy mix relies predominantly on fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal), which accounted for 68% of total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2014 (Figure 1.6). Energy generation from renewable sources has increased since 2000, but has not kept pace with growth in total energy demand. With limited domestic resources, Chile imports most oil, natural gas and coal, which makes it vulnerable to price volatility and supply interruptions.7 Energy security remains, therefore, high on the policy agenda (Chapters 3and 4).

Oil is the most important energy source (Figure 1.6). As in many OECD member countries, oil is predominantly used as a transport fuel, but is also used as a substitute for natural gas in power generation. Use of natural gas decreased notably in the mid-2000s due to import supply shortages (Figure 1.6).8 Since the second half of the 2000s, coal has met much of the growth in electricity demand it accounted for 37% of electricity generation and 18% of the energy mix in 2014. Coal is extensively used in the north of the country for power generation, mainly for the mining industry (IEA, 2015). As a result, electricity generation in Chile is more carbon-intensive than in most other OECD member countries (Figure 4.6).

Energy production from renewable sources has doubled since 2000, reaching 32% of TPES in 2014. This is among the highest shares in the OECD and well above the OECD average (see Basic Statistics Annex 1.A). Biomass is the dominant renewable source, mainly in the form of firewood for residential heating and notably in the isolated southernmost region this, however, has significant impacts on air pollution and public health (Section 3.3). Hydropower is the main renewable source for electricity generation, especially in central Chile. It accounted for 32% of electricity generation in 2014, compared to the OECD average of 13% (IEA, 2015). Other renewables such as solar and wind still play a marginal role (Figure 1.6), though their deployment is increasing rapidly. As Chapters 3and 4 discuss, Chile has favourable conditions to deploy renewables and its supportive regulatory framework has encouraged massive investment in the sector.

Energy intensity

The energy intensity of Chile’s economy (TPES per unit of GDP) has decreased to slightly below the OECD average (see Basic Statistics Annex 1.A). Total energy used by the economy (as measured by the TPES) grew by 54% between 2000 and 2014, but this was slower than GDP (Figure 1.6). TPES per capita is significantly below the OECD average, reflecting the remaining income gap. It increased by 34% over 2000-14, while the OECD average decreased by 10% (IEA, 2015).

Mining and other industry together account for the largest share of energy use (38%), followed by transport and the residential sector (Figure 1.7). Energy demand in the industrial sector increased by 50% over 2000-13, driven by the energy-intensive mining industry and paper and pulp production. Projections indicate that the mining industry’s electricity consumption alone may double until 2025.9 Energy demand in the transport sector also increased strongly (44%) (Figure 1.7), and is projected to rise by roughly 50% until 2035. Energy consumption in the commercial and public services sector has more than doubled since 2000, reflecting expanded use of heating and air conditioning (Figure 1.7).

3.2. Greenhouse gas emissions

Chile’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, excluding land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), increased by 23% between 2000 and 2010 (Figure 1.8). While this increase is less than half the GDP growth in the same period (+50%), it remains one of the largest among OECD member countries (Annex 1.B).10 Compared to 1990, Chilean GHG emissions had almost doubled (+84%) by 2010. CO2 is the largest component of GHG emissions in Chile, accounting for 77% of total emissions in 2010. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) account for the remaining 23%, which is larger than the OECD average and reflects the importance of agriculture and the prevalence of landfilling of waste.

Energy production and consumption remain the largest and fastest growing sources of emissions, accounting for three quarters of total GHG emissions in 2010. About 30% of energy-related emissions, or 23% of total GHG emissions, come from the transport sector alone, reflecting a rapid rise in road transport demand and vehicle fleet. CO2 from energy use increased even faster than TPES, largely due to the shift from natural gas to more carbon-intensive fuels (coal and diesel) for electricity generation in the second half of the 2000s (Figure 1.8). Yet the carbon intensity of the economy (measured as the ratio of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion over GDP) declined in 2000-13 and remains slightly below the OECD average (see Basic Statistics). CO2 emissions per capita were among the lowest in the OECD (Annex 1.B).

Agriculture generated 15% of total GHG emissions in 2010. It was the second largest source of emissions, reflecting the country’s strong agricultural sector. LULUCF absorbs roughly 50 million tonnes of CO2 per year. After a 30% decline in emissions removed by LULUCF over 2000-07, the absorbed volume turned back towards 2000 levels. This has been attributed to an increase in forest areas through tree plantations, as well as less forest harvesting (MMA, 2014a see also Chapter 5). Wildfires are responsible for large yearly variations in some years (e.g. 2002).

In its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Chile pledged to reduce GHG emissions per unit of GDP by 30% by 2030 relative to 2007, if economic growth is maintained at current levels (excluding LULUCF, which has separate targets). The share will be increased to 35-45% if there is sufficient international financial support. Chile has launched a series of programmes and measures to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to climate change, which are discussed in Chapter 4.

3.3. Air emissions and air quality

Air emissions

Since 2005, emissions of most major air pollutants have increased. At the national level, the emission of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) increased by roughly 10% over 2005-11, showing a relative decoupling from economic performance. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) nearly doubled over that period, by far outpacing GDP growth (Figure 1.9). A notable exception, sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions decreased by 20% between the peak in 2007 and 2011 (Figure 1.9).

The decrease in SOx emissions was driven by a large reduction (-56%) in emissions from Chile’s seven copper foundries, which historically accounted for the bulk of SOx emissions.11 This has been attributed to pollution control plans (see below), which helped foundries improve their efficiency. SOx emissions from energy generation increased in the mid-2000s, along with the shift from natural gas to coal combustion (Section 3.1).12 They declined, however, in the second half of the 2000s, thanks to stricter emission controls set in the environmental permits for new power plants (MMA, 2012 environmental permitting is discussed in Chapter 2).

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions stem from the extensive use of firewood for residential heating (Figure 1.9), notably in southern Chile. PM2.5 emissions from burning of firewood increased by 17% over 2005-13. High emissions from firewood heating primarily result from bad wood quality (high humidity) and low efficiency and bad operation of heaters. Firewood and other wood-derived products are not directly regulated. The Ministry of Environment (MMA) is developing measures to reduce the use of firewood consumption, including more efficient heaters, energy-efficient housing and district heating (Chapter 3).

NOx emissions increased across all major polluting sectors over 2005-11, namely transport (+27%), thermoelectric power generation (+77%) and industrial processes (+248%) a sharp reduction of emissions from industrial diesel combustion reversed the trend in 2012-13 (Figure 1.9).

Transport accounted for one-third of national NOx emissions in 2013 (Figure 1.9). It is the single largest source of NOx emissions in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, which alone accounts for 22% of national NOx emissions. The government adopted several measures to control emissions from transport, including stricter vehicle standards,13 incentives to renew the national bus and truck fleet, and development of integrated public transport systems (Chapters 3and 4). However, NOx emissions kept rising with the growth of transport demand, mileage driven and the vehicle fleet, which has more than doubled since 2000 (Figure 1.10). Within the total vehicle stock, the share of diesel vehicles, which emit more pollutants than vehicles running on petrol, has nearly doubled this can be explained by the much lower tax rate on diesel than on petrol (Chapter 3).

Compared to other OECD member countries, Chile still has relatively few motorised vehicles per inhabitant (Annex 1.A). A further expansion of the fleet is to be expected, calling for the development of a comprehensive strategy to manage transport and limit associated air and GHG emissions (Chapter 4). In 2015, the government began introducing a passenger vehicle purchase tax based on a vehicle’s fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. This is a step in the right direction and can contribute to modifying the composition of the fleet towards clean vehicles (Chapter 3).

National emission standards for thermoelectric power plants were established in 2011 (covering SOx, NOx, PM and mercury) and for copper smelters in 2013 (covering SOx and arsenic emissions). No national standard exists for emissions from industrial processes, including mining processes other than copper smelting. As from 2018, Chile will tax emissions of CO2, PM, NOx and SO2 from large energy and industrial facilities, mainly fossil fuel-based electricity plants, but not on copper smelters (Chapter 3).

Air quality

Poor air quality remains a major public concern across the country, particularly in large metropolitan areas, in the surroundings of large industrial and mining sites and in cities where wood burning prevails. Air quality standards exist for all major air pollutants, including for PM2.5 since 2012, but these continue to be exceeded regularly. According to data from national monitoring stations, 44% of cities or regions surpassed the annual PM10 standard, 15% the daily PM10 standard, 67% the annual PM2.5 standard and 77% the daily PM2.5 standard (MMA, 2014c). It is estimated that more than half the Chilean population is exposed to annual average PM2.5 concentration levels above the national standard of 20 micrograms/cubic metre (μg/m 3 ) more than 4 000 people die prematurely each year due to cardiopulmonary diseases associated with chronic PM2.5 exposure (MMA, 2012). On average each year, an estimated 15% of the Chilean population is exposed to more than 35 μg/m 3 , the second highest share in the OECD (Figure 1.11). PM10 and PM2.5 constitute the primary air quality concern in most cities, where firewood burning (in southern cities) and transport (notably in the Santiago Metropolitan Region see Box 1.1) concentrate.14 SOx and NOx concentrations are elevated in areas with mining industry and thermoelectric power generation.

The Santiago Metropolitan Region faces particularly high air pollution, which is partly related to the city’s geographic location.a Average annual exposure to PM2.5 in Santiago is higher than in any other region in Chile (Figure 1.11). The Ministry of Environment estimates that about 27 000 people suffer from air pollution-related problems each year in Santiago, causing more than 1 600 deaths per year (mostly during winter). The region’s Pollution Prevention and Decontamination Plan (PPDA) has helped improve air quality, with the number of pre-emergency days (related to PM10) dropping from 37 to 3 in 1997-2014 (MMA, 2015b).b However, emissions have not substantially declined since 2009 and the PPDA’s target of meeting PM10 and ozone standards by 2010 was not met. The forthcoming PPDA’s most recent update, called Santiago Respira, aims to reduce PM2.5 emissions from transport by 78%, from residential heating by 91% and from industry by 31%. This will ultimately cut the exceedances of air quality standards by 90% in 10 years. The plan includes a ban of wood burning heaters, restrictions on the use of the most polluting road vehicles and implementation of the Euro 6 standard for public buses.

← a. Santiago is in an enclosed valley with limited wind and little rain, which favours the transformation and accumulation of pollutants from traffic, industry and residential firewood use.

← b. Environmental emergencies are declared when the Chilean Air Quality Index (ICAP) exceeds level 500 (equalling a PM10 concentration of 330 ug/m 3 per 24 hours) environmental pre-emergencies are declared at ICAP levels between 300 and 499 (PM10 concentration levels between 240 ug/m 3 and 329 ug/m 3 per 24 hours).

The 1994 Environmental Basic Law requires for Pollution Prevention and/or Decontamination Plans (PPDAs) in saturated zones (areas that exceed air quality standards for the protection of human health) and in latent zones (areas that come close to exceeding these standards) (Chapter 2).15 PPDAs have been developed for ten zones throughout the country, mostly to control for excess PM pollution. However, lack of co-ordination at the administrative level, and insufficient engagement of local institutions and stakeholders, hamper effective implementation of the PPDAs (OECD, 2013a). Although the plans must be reviewed every five years, many have not been updated in a long time. In addition, several areas that exceed (or nearly exceed) national air quality standards have not yet been declared as saturated/latent zones, particularly in southern Chile, and lack PPDAs. The 2014-18 Atmospheric Pollution Control Strategy foresees the declaration of six new saturated areas and completion of 14 PPDAs addressing 87% of the national risk associated with air pollution (MMA, 2014c). As of 2015, 11 of the 14 foreseen PPDAs were either published, under public review or in design.

Since 2012, responsibility for air quality monitoring has passed from the Ministry of Health to the MMA. With a view to standardise and improve the management of air quality information, the MMA developed a National Air Quality Information System (SINCA) that integrates information from public and private networks. Coverage of the national monitoring network has expanded in recent years, but important information gaps remain, notably on PM2.5 less than 30% of monitoring stations report to SINCA (Toro et al., 2015). Data on air emissions improved following a 2005 Ministry of Health decree stipulating mandatory declaration of emissions from facilities in a wide range of economic sectors, as well as with the implementation of the Pollution Release and Transfer Register (PRTR), which contains an inventory of over 7 000 stationary sources of air pollution (Chapter 2).


Listen to ‘The Daily’: Capitalism on Trial in Chile

Hosted by Michael Barbaro produced by Adizah Eghan, Jazmín Aguilera and Clare Toeniskoetter with help from Michael Simon Johnson and Neena Pathak edited by Larissa Anderson

America exported its economic system to the South American country after a coup. Nearly 50 years later, it’s a nation blighted by staggering inequality — and vast protests.

From The New York Times, I’m Michael Barbaro. This is “The Daily.”

Today: Chile’s free-market reforms have been celebrated as an economic success story — until they weren’t. “The Daily”‘s Annie Brown speaks to our colleague Amanda Taub about why, in Chile, capitalism itself is now on trial.

So Amanda Taub, let’s start back at the beginning of last month. What was going on in Chile?

On October 6, the Chilean government announced that there was going to be an increase in the fares for the public transportation system, the metro system in Santiago.

And it was 30 pesos, which might not sound like a lot. That’s about 4 cents in U.S. dollars. But for ordinary Chileans, who were already really struggling to make ends meet, it was just too much to bear.

Soon after the fare was announced, it was actually high school students in the center of Santiago who first started this kind of civil disobedience protest movement —

— where they started out by jumping turnstiles or holding gates open for people so they could avoid paying the metro fares altogether.

That then spread to university students. And there are a lot of university students in Santiago.

Chile has had large protests in recent years. That part was not surprising.

But then, around the end of the second week of protests —

In Chile, student-led protests turned deadly this weekend.

A tense week in Chile after violent protests broke out.

According to the government, nearly 20 people have been killed in the clashes, and Chile’s human rights —

And protesters began to burn metro stations.

Subways, buses and high-rise buildings were set on fire.

They did what some have estimated to be billions of dollars of damage to the metro system in Santiago.

The demonstrations have closed schools, shut down transportation, and caused several stores and businesses to temporarily close.

Suddenly, there was just this general sense that things were completely out of control and really dangerous.

Amanda, what is driving these protests? Because it seems like the magnitude of them no longer matches the thing they were originally about, which was this 30-peso fare hike.

So the problem is not the amount of money itself, necessarily, but the feeling that they already really needed help from the government. And instead of getting it, here they were being squeezed further. Something that I’ve heard a lot as I cover protests and revolutions around the world is that they’re often sparked by a small increase in the price of daily necessities. So food, public transportation, the price of gas is often a big one. Something like an increase in subway fares, if you’re already really worried about basic necessities and then you have to pay that multiple times a day, it makes it just feel inescapable.

So the fact that people in Chile are upset about the subway fare, this small increase in the subway fare, is really a marker, a sign that there’s something much deeper happening in Chile.

Right. It’s become sort of the crucial piece of evidence for a lot of people that the government isn’t working for them, that it’s not aware of their lives and it’s not trying to solve problems for ordinary people. And on top of that, there was a series of scandals involving either corruption or tax evasion by wealthy and powerful Chileans. And that created this growing anger and a sense that the entire system might be illegitimate, that it wasn’t just about distribution of money, but about fundamental fairness and who the government was working for and who it was taking for granted.

And what does the government do?

archived recording (sebastián piñera)

The government did a few things. The Chilean president, Sebastian Piñera, he said —

archived recording (sebastián piñera)

This is a state of emergency now.

archived recording (sebastián piñera)

And then Piñera announced that they would cancel the subway fare increase. But then, when that didn’t quell the protests —

archived recording (sebastián piñera)

— we are at war. And what people heard when he said that was essentially that his government considered itself at war with the Chilean people who were protesting in the street. And then he called the military out to restore order.

And what that looked like was tanks rolling down streets in the capital of Chile, in Santiago, military forces coming out fully armed, and —

— joining the police, who were already in body armor, already driving around in armored vehicles. And so you had all of a sudden these images of tanks facing down Chilean college students in the streets and groups of protesters waving signs calling for political change.

And for a lot of Chileans, particularly the ones who had lived through dictatorship, suddenly, this incredibly traumatic moment of Chilean history seemed to be recurring.

So walk me through that history. Where does it start?

So that story really begins in 1970, when Salvador Allende, who was a socialist, was elected president. But because it was 1970 and it was the Cold War, the United States was pursuing a policy of opposing socialism and communism around the world.

We all are distressed at the plight of the Chilean people and the failure, really, of the Allende government.

They were very much opposed to his government.

The government policies have failed. The Marxist theory does not work among a free people.

And so even though he was democratically elected, the United States backed a coup by the military.

That removed him from office and installed a military government led by General Augusto Pinochet in his place.

archived recording (augusto pinochet)

And what happens when this new American-backed leader, Pinochet, takes over?

archived recording (augusto pinochet)

The initial days of the military regime were incredibly brutal.

In the time we were there, between 400 and 500 people were shot by firing squad in groups of 10 to 33.

They rounded up activists, anyone who was seen as a leftist, a potential agitator, a potential threat to the military’s control and power.

archived recording (speaker 1)

33 was the largest group that was led out to be shot.

archived recording (speaker 2)

archived recording (speaker 1)

They were arrested and imprisoned in the national stadium, which gives you a sense of the scale of these roundups, that it was a stadium full of protesters.

Stampeding people physically to death to get information or because they don’t like them or whatever. We saw it.

The most famous of them was a man called Víctor Jara, who was a musician, but he was really more of a national cultural figure who, for a lot of people, embodied Chilean identity.

archived recording (víctor jara)

He had one popular song called “El Derecho de Vivir en Paz,” which means “the right to live in peace.” He was arrested, tortured by the military. They crushed his hands and then mocked him, saying, try to play the guitar now. Then they killed him. His body was riddled with bullets and then dumped a few days later in a poor neighborhood on the edge of Santiago, just left on the side of the road.

Víctor Jara, I think, became symbolic for a lot of Chileans of the brutality of the military regime.

And how does the U.S. respond to this, given that it had a hand in the rise of this dictator?

This was the Cold War, and this was one part of their Cold War foreign policy, a way to protect what they saw as U.S. interests against the potential rise of communism around the world. And the United States recognized Pinochet as the legitimate government of Chile and was very supportive of his regime. So for the United States, this was an opportunity to pursue a goal that many in the U.S. government had had for a long time, which was to get Chile to adopt more free-market, economically conservative policies. And they had been pursuing this for a while through this program that was almost like an exchange program, where they encouraged and sometimes paid for Chileans to come to the United States to study economics at the University of Chicago.

archived recording (milton friedman)

The question is, which system has the greatest chance for enabling poor people to improve their lot?

Led by Milton Friedman, who was the most famous thinker of the movement at the time.

archived recording (milton friedman)

And on that, the evidence of history speaks with a single voice. The freer the system, the better off the ordinary poor people have been.

And the group of Chilean economists who had come to the U.S. to study, as the U.S. had hoped, they went back to Chile, brought their policies with them and tried to influence the government’s economic policies. They started to be called the “Chicago Boys.” They were known for having adopted this really kind of laissez-faire, extreme free-market view of how things ought to work. And once Pinochet took over, their policies became the foundation of the economic plans that he pursued.

archived recording (milton friedman)

That is why the operation of the free market is so essential, not only to promote productive efficiency, but even more to foster harmony and peace among the peoples of the world.

And what exactly were those economic policies that the Chicago Boys were finally able to implement under Pinochet?

So they were really the basket of policies that we now know as neoliberalism. The idea was that the government was supposed to get out of the way of the free market, so state-owned enterprises were privatized, the pension system was privatized, the education system was partially privatized. There was a real reduction in regulations, cuts in taxes. It was essentially the remaking of the economy along the lines that the most influential free-market economists had imagined in their research at the time.

So this is a kind of extreme version of a free-market economy, where you remove social safety nets and allow the market to take control.

Exactly. And these ideas were pretty prominent in a lot of parts of the world at the time. Margaret Thatcher was influenced by them in the U.K., Ronald Reagan in the United States. But they didn’t go nearly as far in implementing them. The United States still had Social Security. The U.K. still had the National Health System. But in Chile, instead of incremental changes or incremental reforms, they really kind of went for it. And in 1980, they wrote and imposed a new Constitution, and these ideas were really interwoven throughout the Constitution in order to lock in these reforms.

And what effect do these policies have? Do they do what the Chilean government had hoped they would do?

In many ways, yes. Inflation was down, the economy grew, and Chile became a richer country than its neighbors in Latin America. And many people saw this as —

archived recording (milton friedman)

Chile is, by all odds, the best success story in Latin America today.

— the best success story of Latin America. They called it “the miracle of Chile.” Milton Friedman was very proud of it.

archived recording (milton friedman)

But I am more than willing to share in the credit for the extraordinary job that our students did down there.

And these policies stayed. They were maintained by the subsequent democratic governments, even those that were center-left. So from the outside, Chile looked like the Chilean miracle was continuing, but it turned out that for Chileans, all of that economic growth came with an asterisk. And that asterisk was that, as the years went on, it was true that the country’s economy was growing, but a lot of those gains were accruing to the very rich. Middle class Chileans, poor Chileans were not seeing their lives improve. And in fact, the country’s weak social safety net was making that even more difficult. So for instance, the retirement plan, after it was privatized, it took a long time before the first generation to participate in that plan started retiring in large numbers. And when they did, in the last few years, it became clear that the consequences of this plan were poverty for a lot of Chile’s elderly. And I mean that in the most literal, technical sense. The median payment under the private pension program is less than the poverty line for one person in Chile. That means that 50 percent of people are at that or less. And the minimum payment, the payment that the government will guarantee as long as you have paid into the system for 20 years, which is a big if, is even lower. Works out to about 130 U.S. dollars a month, which is just not enough money to get you very far in Chile.

So this idea that by privatizing these systems, you’re letting the market take care of what the government cannot, that has really not panned out.

And so when the current president, Sebastián Piñera, who has continued to really embrace these right-wing neoliberal economic policies, announced that they were raising the metro fares by 30 pesos, 4 cents, that felt to a lot of people like the final straw, the last thing that just confirmed to them that the government didn’t have their interests at heart.

It might have stopped there, had the president not taken the step of calling the military out into the streets. Because that was what really confirmed for a lot of Chileans that, as a common chant and slogan of the protest said, “it’s not 30 pesos, it’s 30 years.”

That made a lot of people feel like they were not just protesting the metro hike. They were not just protesting the specifics of retirement policy. They were protesting 30 years in which they felt that they had still been trapped under the shadow of the dictatorship, because its policies were still reaching out and affecting their lives.

So I flew to Santiago to find out: How much do people really think that they are out there because of 30 years of economic policy and the legacy of the dictatorship? When I got to Chile and was reporting on the ground, something that was immediately striking to me was how it was just everywhere.

The legacy of dictatorship was not subtext. It was text —

— “We’re not everyone. We’re missing those who are dead.” Scrawled graffiti on buildings and written on protesters’ signs and on their T-shirts with pictures of Víctor Jara and quotes from his songs.

This was something that people very consciously and very directly connected to the legacy of the Pinochet regime.

I spent a few days just going to as many protest events in as many parts of Santiago as I could. And throughout all of the protests that I attended, really they were talking about the changes that they wanted to see, including the changes to the Constitution, which was just this remarkable and extremely unusual scene, to see regular people — they brought their dogs, they brought their toddlers, they were sitting on the floor, some were eating snacks — having a very serious conversation about what elements of the Constitution would need to be changed, the mechanism that should be used to change it, and what would make it legitimate.

And how possible would it be for Chile to rewrite its Constitution? How much of this is just a pipe dream of these protests?

It’s seeming more possible than ever. So President Piñera, in the last couple of days, has said that he would be willing to start the process of coming up with a new Constitution. But that hasn’t satisfied the protesters, because one core demand that they have is that the Constitution come from civil society groups and individuals and regular people, rather than just the politicians. And President Piñera has said that he wants Congress to be the ones to come up with the new Constitution.

So the people are saying, we want to be involved in this rewriting of the Constitution that is actually left over from the dictatorship. And the president is saying, O.K., yeah we’ll rewrite the Constitution, but you can’t be involved.

And they’re saying that they think that the government institutions don’t have enough legitimacy to be the ones that come up with the new Constitution. That if they do it, that won’t solve the problem of its illegitimacy, in their eyes.

I think the broader context here that we really need to pay attention to is that Chile’s system was essentially an export from the United States. These were ideas that were embraced in the U.S. so much that our government encouraged and exported them all over the world. And Chile took those ideas and ran with them. In some ways, it worked. But now, decades later, we’re starting to see the results of that experiment.

And so what’s happening in Chile goes to this question that countries all over the world are asking, which is, basically, is more capitalism always better? Or is there a point when capitalism goes too far? And what’s happening in Chile is one answer to that question.

archived recording (víctor jara)

Here’s what else you need to know today.

archived recording (nancy pelosi)

On the investigation front, yesterday was a very somber, prayerful day. I thought it was a successful day for truth, truth coming from the president’s men, people he appointed.

During a news conference in the Capitol, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said that the first two witnesses to publicly testify in the impeachment inquiry, George Kent and Bill Taylor, had, quote, “corroborated evidence of bribery” by President Trump.

So what was the bribe here?

archived recording (nancy pelosi)

The bribe is to grant or withhold military assistance in return for a public statement of a fake investigation into the elections. That’s bribery.

Democrats are eager to establish that the president committed bribery, an impeachable offense that is specifically mentioned in the Constitution.

archived recording (nancy pelosi)

But I am saying that what the president has admitted to and says it’s perfect, I said it’s perfectly wrong. It’s bribery.

For the next few weeks, we’ll be covering the latest developments in the impeachment inquiry in our new podcast. It’s called “The Latest.” You can hear these episodes at the end of the day, right here on “The Daily.” Or subscribe to “The Latest” wherever you listen.

“The Daily” is made by Theo Balcomb, Andy Mills, Lisa Tobin, Rachel Quester, Lynsea Garrison, Annie Brown, Clare Toeniskoetter, Paige Cowett, Michael Simon Johnson, Brad Fisher, Larissa Anderson, Wendy Dorr, Chris Wood, Jessica Cheung, Alexandra Leigh Young, Jonathan Wolfe, Lisa Chow, Eric Krupke, Marc Georges, Luke Vander Ploeg, Adizah Eghan, Kelly Prime, Julia Longoria, Sindhu Gnanasambandan, Jazmín Aguilera, M.J. Davis Lin, Austin Mitchell, Monika Evstatieva, Sayre Quevedo, Neena Pathak and Dan Powell. Our theme music is by Jim Brunberg and Ben Landsverk of Wonderly. Special thanks to Sam Dolnick, Mikayla Bouchard, Julia Simon, Stella Tan, Lauren Jackson and Bianca Giaever.

That’s it for “The Daily.” I’m Michael Barbaro. See you on Monday.


Chile National Air Transport System - History

Aquaculture may be experimental when the activity aims at the production of living aquatic resources for scientific purpose, technological development or teaching. The definition of experimental aquaculture does not encompass the maintenance of resources for public display with demonstrative or recreational purposes

Article 1 of Law 20.434 (Modifica la Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura en materia de acuicultura), 5 April 2010

Legal definition
The Fisheries and Aquaculture Law defines aquaculture as an organized human activity aiming at the production of living aquatic resources [ u.t. ] ( "actividad que tiene por objeto la producción de recursos hidrobiológicos organizada por el hombre" ).
Guidelines and codes of conduct
There are no guidelines or codes of conduct on aquaculture.
International arrangements
Chile is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). In 1996, Chile has signed a free trade agreement with the MERCOSUR ( Mercado Común del Sur ).

Chile has recently (2010) joined the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Chile is also a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), but has not yet ratified the Biosafety Protocol.

From a regional perspective, the 1997 Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement and its side agreements ( Canada-Chile Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (CCAEC) and Canada-Chile Agreement on Labour Cooperation (CCALC) are worth mentioning. Indeed, the CCFTA deals with investment in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors, whereas the goal of the CCAEC is to ensure that both countries enforce environmental laws, such as those governing water, air, toxic substances and wildlife, to provide for high levels of environmental protection.

Furthermore, Chile and Greece have signed a Framework Agreement on economic, scientific and technical cooperation (1994). Agriculture (including agro-industry and aquaculture), and forestry were identified as areas of possible cooperation.

    (Convenio para la Protección del Medio Marino y la Zona Costera del Pacífico Sudeste) (1981), among Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile. (Convenio sobre las Medidas de Vigilancia y Control de las Zonas Marítimas de los Países Signatarios) (1954), between Ecuador, Peru and Chile, on the exploitation of maritime resources. .

An authorization or concession is not required for aquaculture activities carried out entirely on private property, even when inland or marine waters are used, provided they are used in accordance with the respective regulations.

Only individuals of Chilean nationality or foreigners with permanent residence in the country, and Chilean legal entities, established in accordance with Chilean law, may apply for aquaculture concessions and/or authorizations. The concession or authorization confers the right to set up an aquaculture activity in a specific area and may concern either a single species or a group of species.

Operators of nurseries and slaughterhouses also need to obtain an authorization pursuant to the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law. In addition they need to fulfill certain sanitary and environmental requisites and observe some practices for disease control and environmental protection. The 2005 amendment (Law No. 20.091) to the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law has introduced the concept of nurseries and slaughterhouses in Article 90 (bis). The law only refers to an &ldquoauthorization&rdquo to operate these types of facilities without giving additional details. The environmental requisites are provided for in articles 86 and 87 of the law which are applicable to aquaculture facilities as well as to nurseries and slaughterhouses. Therefore, no specific procedures have been introduced.

The cultivation and import of genetically modified living aquatic resources are now subject to the prior authorization of the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries (Law No.38.547 of 2006 amending the Fisheries and Aquaculture Law). A sanitary study is required, which must include an environmental impact assessment. The procedures will be defined by a decree of the Minister of Economy.

Aquaculture concessions are granted by the Ministry of Defense and confer the right to use and benefit from State property (marine beaches public coastal areas water-column and sea-bed lots navigable rivers and lakes for vessels over 100 gross tons) for an indefinite period of time by allowing the concessionaire to establish an aquaculture facility.

Aquaculture authorizations are granted by the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries and confer an indefinite right to use and benefit, for aquaculture purposes, from the streams and water bodies that are not under the authority of the Ministry of Defense and are classified as suitable for aquaculture development.

Applications for aquaculture concessions and authorizations have to be filed with the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries. Applicants must provide a technical project, together with the supporting documentation required by the regulations. Subject to a technical report drafted by the National Service for Fisheries, the Sub Secretariat shall verify the absence of a prior concession or authorization affecting the same area, as well as the compliance with the conditions set forth by the law. In particular, the approval of an application is subject to the compliance of the project with the requirements established by the Ministry of Economy, such as the environmental measures to be taken to ensure that the development of aquaculture facilities does not exceed the carrying capacity limits of each waterbody, or the maximum size of aquaculture areas. Concerning the former, the Environmental Regulation on Aquaculture

( Reglamento Ambiental para Acuicultura ) (2001) requires the preparation of a study, the CPS (Preliminary Characterization of Site &ndash Caracterización Preliminar de Sitio), for the determination of the physical, biological and chemical parameters and variables of the project area. The CPS must be lodged with the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries by those applying for a concession or authorization to conduct aquaculture in water-column and sea-bed lots (sectores de agua y fondo). The content of the CPS and the methodology for its preparation are established by the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries in Resolution (Subpesca) No. 404 of 2003. The resolution also establishes that the aquaculture facility should provide &ldquoenvironmental information&rdquo (información ambiental), including the system of production and the projected annual productions.
According to the General Law on the Environement ( Ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente ) (1994), the conduct of aquaculture is also subject to an EIA. Therefore, authorizations and concessions (considered as sectoral environmental permits) are issued through the EIA System ( Sistema de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental ) (see § on EIA below).

When processing an application, the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries must either issue the authorization or, within 30 days, refer the documentation concerning concession applications to the Sub-Secretariat for Marine Affairs, under the Ministry of National Defense, for final decision to be taken within the following 90 days. After obtaining the concession or authorization, the applicant has 45 days to publish the resolution in the Official Bulletin. Article 80, as amended in 2005, establishes that the aquaculture authorization/concession should indicate if it is subject to Article 80 bis or 80 ter (see paragraph on management of titles below). The applicant also has three months to request the actual delivery of the authorization/concession (entrega material) to the Maritime Authority. The official delivery of the authorization/concession is performed once the fee for the concession or authorization is paid in accordance with Article 84.

The Fisheries and Aquaculture Law provides for the payment of an annual fee for aquaculture concession or authorizations holders (Article 84). This fee corresponds to two tax units per hectare. In case of units of less than one hectare the fee will be decreased accordingly. For a period of three years from the publication of the granting resolution in the Official Gazette, concession or authorization holders operating in an area of 50 hectares or less are exempted from paying the fee, provided they have not been granted additional concessions or authorizations.

Concession and authorization holders have the right to carry out works to improve the structures of the aquaculture facilities subject to an authorization of the competent authority. As a general rule, both are under an obligation to ensure the conservation of the ecological balance of the concerned area.

Concession and authorization holders may apply for modifications of the scope to include one or more additional species to the the Sub-Secretariat for Marine Affairs and the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries respectively.

All aquaculture concessions and authorizations, as well as any subsequent modifications thereto, must be entered in the National Aquaculture Register before starting operations. The Register is kept by the National Service for Fisheries. Procedures are regulated by Decree No. 499 of 1994 establishing the National Aquaculture Register Regulations ( Reglamento del Registro Nacional de Acuicultura )

As a general rule, the authorization or concession holder should commence the aquaculture activity within a year from the official delivery of the title. The concession or authorization holder may interrupt operations for a period of two consecutive years, with a possible extension up to 4 years.

  • if the concession or authorization holder has been operating the farm for at least three consecutive years and
  • if six years have elapsed from the official delivery of the title (Article 80 ter).
  • Transfer, sell or otherwise dispose of the aquaculture concession or authorization with the prior permission from the Sub-Secretariat of the Marine Affairs or the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries.
  • Request the reimbursement of half the fee paid under Article 77 to subscribe to the special regime.
  • Increase of another 4 years the deadline for initiating aquaculture activities.

The granting of permits for the use of water is regulated by the Water Code, which recognizes three kinds of water use: continuous (24 hours a day), discontinuous and alternated (shared among two or more users). The competent authority is the General Department for Water, Ministry of Public Works. No specific reference is made to the use of water for aquaculture purposes.

The General Law on the Environment establishes a National System of Wild Protected Areas, which includes marine parks and reserves. Likewise, the creation of private wild protected areas shall be encouraged. Any waterbody (sea, lakes, rivers, lagoons, marshes, etc.) and beach situated in a protected area is considered as part of that area.

EIA
The conduct of aquaculture is subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment. The General Law on the Environment, implemented by Decree No. 95 that regulates the EIA (Decreto Nº 95 - Reglamento del Sistema de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental) (21 August 2001) states that any project of intensive exploitation, farming of aquatic resources, and the installation of plants for the processing of those resources is subject to an EIA

Article 10 n)- General Law for the Environment (Ley Nº 19.300 - Ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente), 1 March 1994

The EIA System is administered by the Regional or National Environmental Commission. Applications are to be filed with either the Regional Commission or the Executive Board of the National Commission, depending on whether the environmental impact is located in one or more regions. Upon approval of an EIA Study or Declaration, an environmental permit will be granted

The Regulation on the EIA System ( Reglamento del Sistema de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental ) (1997), as modified in 2001, includes authorizations and concessions to conduct aquaculture among sectoral environmental permits ( permisos sectorales ambientales ), i.e. issued by the authority responsible for the aquaculture sector as opposed to the environmental authority. Should such authorization or concession not be issued within the deadline for the approval or denial of the EIA Study or Declaration, the competent Environmental Commission shall require the responsible authority (i.e. the Ministry of Economy for aquaculture authorizations and the Ministry of National Defense for aquaculture concessions) to do so within the following 30 days: silence means approval.

  • Risks for people's health, caused by the quantity of effluents or waste matter.
  • Significant adverse effects over the quantity and quality of renewable natural resources, including soil, water and air.
  • Resettlement of human communities, or significant alteration of the life system and customs of the human group.
  • Location close to human settlements, protected areas or resources which may be affected, and environmental value of the area.
  • Significant alteration, in terms of magnitude or duration, of the scenic or tourism value of an area.
  • Alteration of monuments, sites of anthropological, archaeological or historical interest and, in general, of those forming the cultural heritage.

The competent Commission must approve or reject the Study within 120 days from the application (deferrable for 60 additional days under specific conditions): silence means approval. However, a temporary authorization to commence the project or activity may be issued upon subscription of an insurance policy covering the environmental damage risk. To ensure community participation in the decision-making process, the Commission shall publish in the Official Gazette an abstract of the Study, within 10 days from the application. Within the following 60 days, civic associations and natural persons may express their opinion thereon.

The Environmental Impact Declaration shall contain at least the following: type of project or activity description of the project or activity to be carried out or of the modifications to be introduced indication of the necessary elements to determine whether the environmental impact is in keeping with the relevant legislation and does not require an Environmental Impact Study and description of the environmental obligations voluntarily taken up by the project manager.

The competent Commission must approve or reject the Declaration within 60 days from the application (deferrable for 30 additional days under specific conditions): silence from the administration means approval.

Every month, the National and Regional Environmental Commissions publish, in the Official Gazette and in a national or regional periodical publication, a list of all the Declarations and Studies that have been presented during the previous month, indicating the name of the applicant, the project location and the type of activity. For both Studies and Declarations, all the administrations participating in the EIA process approve the final technical report, to be drafted by the competent Commission.

Operation
Water and wastewater
The Health Service ( Servicio de Salud ) of the General Department for Water, Ministry of Public Works, is in charge of establishing the water quality standards for different uses, including aquaculture.

Concerning the discharge of wastewater, the General Law on the Environment establishes that the Rules determining the maximum quantity of contaminants allowed in the effluents ( Normas de Emisión ) shall be issued by the Ministry General Secretariat of the Presidency ( Ministerio Secretería General de la Presidencia ). The Rules, drafted by the National Commission for the Environment ( Comisión Nacional de Medio Ambiente &ndash CONAMA), set specific quantities for the discharge of contaminated water into areas suitable for aquaculture (see § on access to land and water above). Moreover, Title IV of the Regulation for the Control of Water Contamination ( Reglamento para el Control de la Contaminación Acuática ) (1992) provides that any establishment producing waste to be discharged into national waters (contamination deriving from terrestrial sources as opposed to waste originated by ships and vessels) shall apply for an authorization to the General Department for the Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine ( Dirección General del Territorio Marítimo y de Marina Mercante ).

According to Decree Nº 397 that modifies Decree No.320 that approved the Environmental Regulation for aquaculture (Decreto Nº 397 - Modifica Decreto Nº 320 de 2001, que aprobó el Reglamento ambiental para la acuicultura) (19 November 2008) every aquaculture establishment has to adopt measures that prevent the dumping of solid and liquid wastes originating from aquaculture activities, including fish blood and fluids, chemical substances, mud and in general any material or substance of any origin that may affect the sea bed, water column, beaches

Sole article- Decree Nº 397 that modifies Decree No.320 that approved the Environmental Regulation for aquaculture (Decreto Nº 397 - Modifica Decreto Nº 320 de 2001, que aprobó el Reglamento ambiental para la acuicultura), 19 November 2008
  • Identification of the importer.
  • Identification of the exporter.
  • Country and region of origin of the specimens.
  • Name and location of the establishment of origin, specifying whether it is a public or private entity, when appropriate.
  • Species, stage of development and quantity of the specimens.
  • Name and stamp of the official authority.
  • Date of the certificate.
  • Origin of the maintenance waters of the reproductors/broodstock and of the specimens (well, catchment, river, lake, sea, etc.).
  • Health conditions of the species to be imported, in compliance with the legal requirements.
  • Identification of the importer and the consignee.
  • Species to be imported.
  • Number and biomass of specimens for each species (fertilized ova gametes or other).
  • Country of origin.
  • Origin of the specimens (cultivation natural environment or other).
  • Name and location of the establishment of origin, when appropriate.
  • Origin of the maintenance waters of the reproductors/broodstock and the specimens (well, catchment, river, lake, sea, etc.).
  • Time period of the importation.
  • Identification of the applicant (legal persons - a copy of the memorandum of association, a certificate of validity and a copy of the mandate empowering the legal representative).
  • Identification of the species (scientific and common name).
  • Geographical distribution of the species in its natural environment.
  • Geographical and physical place of origin of the specimens, and indication of their development stage.
  • Zoogeographical area and establishment where the species will be kept.
  • Purpose of import.
  • History of the species in its natural environment, including the following aspects:
    1. Life cycle.
    2. Reproductive biology, including:
      • Type of reproduction.
      • Type of fecundation.
      • Reproductive cycle.
      • Fecundity.
      • Environmental requirements for reproduction.
      • Description of the habitat under analysis (biotic and abiotic factors).
      • Identification of direct and indirect effects of the species over wild and cultivated aquatic species living in the concerned zoogeographical area.
      • Characterization of each single effect over the aquatic ecosystem, in order to determine:
        1. The probability of its occurrence and the quantitative and/or qualitative assessment of its impact, including the elements demonstrating it.
        2. The environmental tolerance to the occurrence and duration of the impact.
        3. The area of possible influence.
        4. The degree of reversibility of the effects and an estimate of the necessary time frame.
      • Specification of the methodology and activity chronogramme of the study, including the quantity and use of the specimens for which a limited introduction of the species has been allowed.
      • Proposal of a preventive monitoring system for the health and ecological risk variables.
      • Technical characteristics of the isolation unit.
      • Number and date of the relevant resolution of the Sub Secretariat for Fisheries (with reference to the authorization).
      • Identification of the importer and the consignee.
      • Identification of the responsible Customs Agency.
      • Species to be imported.
      • Number and biomass of the specimens (fertilized ova gametes or other).
      • Country of origin.
      • Origin of the specimens (cultivation natural environment or other).
      • Name and location of the establishment of origin.
      • Origin of the maintenance waters of the reproductors/broodstock and the specimens (well, catchment, river, lake, sea, etc.).
      • Place of incubation or isolation unit.
      • Final destination.
      • Identification of the means of transport, date and time of arrival in the country.
      • Facsimile or copy of all the health certificates (including the complementary certificates required by the Sub Secretariat for Fisheries).

      ( Reglamento de Medidas de Protección, Control y Erradicación de Enfermedades de Alto Riesgo para las Especies Hidrobiológicas ) (2001) , specifies additional procedures for the import of live aquatic species &ndash such as certification, disinfection, etc. &ndash in order to avoid introduction of high risk diseases in the country. Moreover, a 15-day quarantine period is prescribed for the import of ornamental species.

      The Regulation also establishes the procedures and conditions for the transport of live species within the country. The transport of high risk material is subject to the authorization of the National Service for Fisheries.

      Lastly, the export of Chilean products is only subject to the quality standards imposed by the country of destination.

      Disease control
      Fish disease control is regulated by the General Fisheries and Aquaculture Law and its Regulations, and in particular by the Regulation on High Risk Diseases of Living Aquatic Species, issued by the Ministry of Economy.

      As mentioned above (see § on fish movement), health certificates are required for both first import and introduction of authorized living aquatic species in the country. The Regulations also address the characteristics of the Isolation Unit and the procedures to be followed when complementary certificates or studies are required, before the first import of a specimen.

      As stated by the Regulation, the Sub-Secretariat for Fisheries shall draft a classification of high risk diseases, on a yearly basis, according to the following criteria: virulence, percentage of infected specimens, spread, or economic impact on the country. For each species (fish, molluscs and crustaceans), two lists are drafted &ndash List 1 contains the diseases that are subject to compulsory declaration to OIE (International Animal Health Organization - Office International des Epizooties ), those that have been detected in the country for the first time, or those with limited distribution List 2 includes the remaining diseases that are considered important by the OIE, or those showing a wide geographical spread over the national territory.

      • Determine the species, the development stage and the number of dead, ill or presumably infected specimens.
      • Identify the infected area and the surveillance zone.
      • Forbid or authorize the transfer of live specimens, eggs and gametes from the infected cultivation centre to those located in the surveillance zone.
      • Adopt and supervise the appropriate disinfection measures concerning individuals, tools, feedstuff, waste and vehicles.
      • Establish an intensive monitoring and official investigation system in the affected cultivation centre and in those located in the monitoring zone.
      • Define the management and production procedures to avoid the transmission of the disease.
      • Define the management and production procedures to avoid the transmission of the disease.
      • Require the disinfection of the facilities and implements.
      • Restrict or forbid the transfer of specimens from the infected cultivation centre.
      • Identify the infected area and the surveillance zone.
      • Authorize the processing and upkeep of clinically healthy organisms until they have reached the commercial size.
      • Require the elimination of all infected or ill specimens.
      • Dispose the elimination of all the living aquatic species cultivated in the infected centres.
      • Establish a period of time during which the introduction and holding of sensitive living aquatic species shall be forbidden.
      • The Environmental Monitoring System (Sistema de Monitoreo Ambiental) since 1989.
      • The Clean Production Agreement (Acuerdos de Producción Limpia) signed in 2002.
      • Codes of Better Management Practices, 2003.
      • Certification Systems such as ISO (9001, 14000) and OHSAS.
      • The permanent Fiscalization of the Salmon Farming Norms System (Sistema de Vigilancia Permanente de la Normativa Salmonera &ndash VIGÍA. 2005.
      • The Coastal Management Program (Programa de Gestión Zonal). 2006.

      The production, conservation, sale, import/export of veterinary drugs, as well as the use of experimental drugs are covered by the Regulation on Veterinary Drugs ( Reglamento de Productos Farmacéuticos de Uso Exclusivamente Veterinario ) (1995), implementing the Animal Health and Protection Law

      ( Ley de Sanidad y Protección Animal ) (1963) and the Agriculture and Livestock Service Law ( Ley sobre el Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero ) (1989). Furthermore, the Biosecurity Regulation ( Normas Generales de Bioseguridad para los Productos Farmaceúticos Biotecnológicos que Contienen Organismos Geneticamente Modificados ) (1999) provides additional measures for the registration, testing, production, import, prescription and sale of veterinary products containing GMOs. There is no specific reference with respect to the use of drugs for aquaculture purposes, in any of the above mentioned regulations.


      LATAM

      The merger of TAM with LAN Airlines was completed in 2012 and the new brand LATAM Airlines was launched in May 2016. The Airline&rsquos home airport is in Santiago, Chile with flights to over 124 South American destinations.

      History

      LATAM Airlines is the combination of Chilean airline LAN and Brazilian airline TAM. LAN Airlines was founded by Chilean Air Force Commodore Arturo Merino Benitez (after whom Santiago Airport is named), and began operations in 1929 as Línea Aeropostal Santiago-Arica. In 1932 It was re-branded as Línea Aérea Nacional de Chile (National Air Line of Chile), using the acronym LAN-Chile as its commercial name. LAN-Chile&rsquos first fleet consisted of de Havilland Moth planes.

      LAN Airways early aircraft and passengers

      Subsidiaries

      LATAM Argentina, LATAM Express, LATAM Colombia, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Peru, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Paraguay.

      Destinations

      LATAM Airlines operates to destinations in 21 countries, through its subsidiary South American airlines the company has unrivaled reach to over 124 destinations within the continent.

      Airline Alliance

      LATAM is a member of the oneworld alliance. LAN has been a oneworld alliance member since 2000, however before the merger TAM airlines was a Star Alliance member, this membership was dropped in 2014 when the airline ultimately decided to stay with oneworld.

      Fleet

      LATAM&rsquos fleet consist of 154 passenger aircraft made up of a variety of Airbus and Boeing aircraft, the majority being Airbus A320-200&rsquos. In 2012, it became the launch customer of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner in the Americas.

      LATAM Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner photographed on May 13, 2016 from Wolfe Air Aviation Learjet 25B.

      Cabin Classes

      LATAM Airlines has Premium Business Class, Premium Economy Class and Economy Class.

      Premium Business passengers have a seat that reclines into a fully-flat bed measuring 23 inches wide and 73 inches long. Each seat has a 15 inch tv screen with personal entertainment system. In this cabin you can take advantage of access to VIP lounges, priority check-in, boarding, deplaning and baggage pickup, 125% LANPASS miles, and increased baggage allowance.

      LATAM Airlines, Business Class.

      Premium Economy has a dedicated cabin onboard for twelve passengers. The seat is fully reclining with increased leg room and there is a universal outlet to charge computers, iPods, DVD players, and other devices. In this cabin you can take advantage of access to VIP lounges, priority check-in, boarding, deplaning and baggage pickup, 125% LANPASS miles, and increased baggage allowance.

      Economy Class seating is ergonomically designed with a pitch of 32 inches. Each Economy seat on the Boeing 767&rsquos, 787&rsquos and Airbus A340&rsquos is fitted with a personal entertainment system.

      Frequent Flyer Program

      LATAM PASS currently has over four million members and they earn kilometres each time they fly with LATAM, a subsidiary or a oneworld partner. There are four membership categories ranging from Comodoro Black (entry level), Comodoro (aligned with OneWorld Emerald), Premium Silver (OneWorld Sapphire) and Premium (OneWorld Ruby). Prior to 2016 LATAM Pass was known as LAN Pass.

      Airline Lounges

      LATAM operates its VIP Lounges at Santiago Airport, Buenos Aires and Bogota Miami and Sao Paulo. The lounges are open to passengers traveling onboard LATAM First Class, Premium Business, Business and Premium Economy, as well as senior members of the LATAMPASS program (Comodoro, Premium Silver levels), TAM Fidelidade program (Black, Vermelho Plus, Vermelho) and OneWorld respective categories (Emerald, Sapphire).

      Fact Sheet

      Hub Cities: Santiago
      Secondary Hubs: Bogota, Lima, Guayaquil, Buenos Aires
      Focus Cities: Antofagasta, Quito, Miami
      Frequent Flyer Program: LATAMPASS
      Airport Lounge: VIP Lounge
      Airline Alliance: oneworld
      Fleet Size: 145
      Destinations: 66


      Demographics

      note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

      Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

      Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

      Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.

      Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.


      The Capital Cities Of Chile As Tourist Destinations In The Country

      Tourism forms the backbone of most Chile cities. The culture, hotels, ski resorts and others make Chile a popular tourist destination. Wine Tourism makes up a significant tourist attraction site in Santiago. Valparaiso benefits from a proximity to Santiago by having many tourists in summer especially in Vina del Mar and the Central Coast. Vina del Mar has 13 beaches, and festivals such as the International Song Festival which is the largest festival in Latin America. Tourism forms are the primary economic activity of both Santiago and Valparaiso. The two cities are almost dependent on each other. Whereas Santiago offers the best in cultural heritage and historic sites, Valparaiso offers life and music. With tourism, the skylines of Chile are developing at a fast rate. The cities of Chile have an incredible vibe, and life is a blast in these regions.


      Watch the video: Chile Country in South America. Best Travel Destinations (August 2022).