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Robert L Paine DE-578 - History

Robert L Paine DE-578 - History



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Robert L. Paine

(DE-578: dp. 1,720 (f.), 1. 306', b. 35'10", dr. 11', s. 24 k.
cpl. 186, a. .3 3", 4 1.1", 4 40mm., 10 20mm., 8 dcp.
1 dcp (hh.), 2 dct.; cl. Buckley)

Robert I. Paine (DE-578) was laid down at the BethlehemHingham Shipyards Ine., Hingham, Mass., 5 November 1943 launched 30 December 1943, sponsored by Mrs. John Paine mother of Private Paine, and commissioned 26 February 1944 Lt. Comdr. Drayton Cochran in command.

Robert I. Paine completed shakedown off Bermuda in midApril 1944 and joined the Atlantic Fleet on the 24th. She departed Brooklyn the same day to screen Ranger (CV 4) and Card (CVE-11) as they transported Army aircraft and Allied personnel to Casablanca. Arriving 4 May, the destroyer escort patrolled olT Casablanca until the 7th; then put to sea for the return voyage. Detached on the 10th, she joined a hunterkiller group centered on Block Island (CVE-21) on the 15th. On the 18th, the group returned to Casablanca, replenished and sortied again on the 23d for another antisubmarine sweep west of the Canary Islands and south of the Azores. On the 2'3th, Block Island was sunk. Barr (DE-576) was struck in the stern. Both were victims of torpedoes from U-549. The remaining escorts commenced rescue and search operations, with Robert I. Paine taking on 279 survivors from the CVE, then moving in to cover the crippled DE. Another escort, Engene E. Elmore (DE-686), made contact with the U-boat, and assisted by Ahrens (DE-575), sank her. The search for survivors was ealled off the next day and the force retired to Casablanea. On 4 June, Robert I. Paine steamed for Gibraltar. Off Europa Point she rendezvoused with GUF 11 and, as a unit of TF 68, escorted the eonvov to New York arriving on the 14th.

ASW training in Casco Bay followed, and on 12 July she anchored in Hampton Roads to await the sailing of UGS 48, a slow convoy to Bizerte. Underway on the 13th, her radar picked up enemy planes shadowing the convoy on the 31st, and she assisted in beating off a Luftwaffe attack on 1 August. At Boston again at the end of the month, she completed another escort run to Bizerte and back in early November then, after further training, resumed antisubmarine activities, this time ranging between Casco Bay, Halifax, and Argentia In February 1945, she shifted to escort work off the southern New England coast and in early March she headed east to join the 12th Fleet for patrol work under the Royal Navy's Western Approsehes Command. She arrived at Liverpool 3 April, and for the remainder of the European War Rob.rt I. Paine guarded convoys on the first or last section of the transatlantic convoy lanes.

On 14 May, Robert I. Paine represented the United States at surrender ceremonies of eight U-boats at Londonderry; then, after a brief return to Liverpool, got underway for the United States.

On 1 June the destroyer escort arrived at New York, whence she continued on to Houston and conversion to a radar picket ship. In January 1946, she trained in the Caribbean, then sailed north for exercises off Maine. Back at Norfolk in March she sailed on the 10th for the Azores and duty as intermediate air-sea rescue ship based at Ponta Delgada. In May she returned to the United States and was laid up for 4 months beeause of lack of personnel. In the fall she underwent overhaul and in January 1947 resumed operations along the east coast and in the Caribbean. Ordered to join the Reserve Fleet in June 1947, she arrived at Charleston 4 September, Decommissioned 21 November, and was berthed with the Charleston Ctroup, Atlantic Reserve Fleet where she remained until struck from the Navy list 1 June 1968. During that time she was redesignated twice, to DER-578 on 18 March 1949, and to DE-578 on 1 December 1954.

Robert I. Paine earned one battle star during World War II.


ROBERT I PAINE DE 578

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Buckley Class Type TE Destroyer Escort
    Keel Laid November 5 1943 - Launched December 30 1943

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each name of the ship (for example, Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 are different names for the same ship so there should be one set of pages for Bushnell and one set for Sumner). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each name and/or commissioning period. Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.


History of Paine

Paine College was founded by the leadership of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, now United Methodist Church, and the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, now Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. Paine was the brainchild of Bishop Lucius Henry Holsey, who first expressed the idea for the College in 1869. Bishop Holsey asked leaders in the ME Church South to help establish a school to train Negro teachers and preachers so that they might in turn appropriately address the educational and spiritual needs of the people newly freed from the evils of slavery. Leaders in the ME Church South agreed, and Paine Institute came into being.

On November 1, 1882, the Paine College Board of Trustees, consisting of six members, three from each Church, met for the first time. They agreed to name the school in honor of the late Bishop Robert Paine of the MECS who had helped to organize the CME Church. In December, the Trustees selected Dr. Morgan Callaway as the first President of the College and enlarged the Board from six to nineteen members, drawing its new membership from communities outside of Georgia so that the enterprise might not be viewed as exclusively local.

Bishop Holsey traveled throughout the Southeast seeking funds for the new school. On December 12, 1882, he presented the Trustees of Paine Institute with $7.15 from the Virginia Conference and $8.85 from the South Georgia Conference. In that same month, Reverend Atticus Haygood, a minister of the ME Church South, gave $2,000 to support President Callaway through the first year. Thus, a $2,000 gift from a white minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church South and $16 raised by a CME minister – penny by penny from former slaves - became the financial basis for the founding of Paine College.

In 1883, a Charter of Incorporation for The Paine Institute was granted, and the Trustees elected Dr. George Williams Walker as its first teacher. In January 1884, classes began in rented quarters located on Broad Street in downtown Augusta. On December 28, 1884, the Reverend George Williams Walker was elected President of Paine Institute following the resignation of Reverend Callaway. In 1886, the College moved to its present site on Fifteenth Street.

The year 1888 was a very significant one for Paine College. Reverend Moses U. Payne, an MECS minister from Missouri, gave $25,000 to Paine for the endowment. Also in 1888, Trustee W. A. Candler presented a resolution to the Trustees authorizing President Walker to employ John Wesley Gilbert, Paine's first student and first graduate, to become the first Black member of the faculty. The hiring of Mr. Gilbert launched Paine's continuing tradition of having a biracial faculty. President Walker died in 1910 after having headed Paine for twenty-six years. The Paine Institute began with a high school component and gradually developed a college department. Initially, advanced students received special instruction on an individual basis, but by 1903 sufficient college-level work was provided to justify changing the school's name to The Paine College. Paine continued its high school department until 1945, because there was no public secondary school for Blacks in Augusta until that year.I-3 Source: Paine College Catalog and the Internet (GeneralHistory) Under the leadership of President Edmund Clarke Peters, 1929-1956, Paine College was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools as a Class "B" institution in 1931 and then as a Class "A" institution in 1945.

President E. Clayton Calhoun served as President from 1956 to 1970. During his leadership, Paine was approved by the University Senate of The Methodist Church in 1959, and the College was admitted to full membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1961. Dr. Lucius H. Pitts was elected President of Paine College in 1971. He was the first alumnus and first Black President of the College. He died in his office in 1974. Dr. Julius S. Scott, Jr. served as President of the College on two separate occasions: 1975 to 1982 and 1988 to 1994. Paine alumnus, Dr. William Harris, served during the period of 1982 to 1988. In 1994, Dr. Shirley A. R. Lewis became Paine College's first female President. Dr. George C. Bradley was appointed fourteenth President of the College on January 1, 2008 and served until September 2014. The Board of Trustees appointed Dr. Samuel Sullivan Interim President in September 2014 and later elevated Dr. Sullivan to President in June 2016.

In June 2017, the Board of Trustees appointed Dr. Jerry L. Hardee to lead the College into a new era. Within nine months of Dr. Hardee's tenure, the College witnessed over $1.5 million in renovations, revitalized signature fundraising events that were on hiatus, re-activated the Alumni Relations Office and the College's Bookstore while introducing new publications and offerings for students. Dr. Jerry Hardee served until June 2019.

Dr. Cheryl Evans Jones was named acting President in July 2019 and President in October 2019 at the fall meeting of the Board of Trustees.

The College remains a liberal arts, coeducational, church-related school, gratefully related to its founding denominations and open to all.


Digital Books on Eastham History:

Most of these files are hosted by the Internet Archive, a global internet library with backup files in locations around the world dedicated to offering permanent electronic access to historical collections as a means of cultural preservation.

Mourt's Relation or journal of the plantation at Plymouth, by William Bradford, Edmond Winslow. The Henry Martin Dexter edition, JK Wiggin, 1865.

Of Plimoth Plantation, by William Bradford, Wright & Potter, 1899.

The Story of the 'First Encounter' at Nauset by Ian Saxine, 2019. View the video of Dr. Saxine's October 2019 presentation at Salt Pond Visitors Center.

The Walter E Babbit papers 1678-1895. Correspondence, church pew and real estate deeds, indentures, wills and escape papers, maritime records, petitions, town warrants, church and school records, transcripts of records (1790-1791, 1911) of Brewster Congregational Church, genealogical data, and other materials, chiefly relating to Cape Cod history, people, organizations, businesses and events. Includes information pertaining to towns of Brewster, Chatham, Dennis, and Eastham.


Manitoba History: Famous Places: The Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette

This article was published originally in Manitoba History by the Manitoba Historical Society on the above date. We make it available here as a free, public service.

Perhaps as long as man has lived in an urban environment, tuberculosis has lived with him. Although largely forgotten by our own society, until recently TB was a common and dreaded disease, and it still is in the third world. The first effective means employed by medical science to combat the disease was to change the patient&rsquos environment. Hence the TB sanatorium.

Summer balcony at Ninette, circa 1940.
Source: A. L. Paine

The history of the sanatorium began as early as the 1850s in Europe and its value was firmly established by Sir Robert W. Phillip of Edinburgh who, in 1887, organized his dispensary to treat tubercular cases and also to keep a close watch on the health of the family members of his patients. The function of the sanatorium was to provide the patient with a clean environment, proper nutrition, rest and exercise.

TB has long been a problem for Manitobans, and especially for the Native population. The provincial government established the Sanatorium Board of Manitoba in 1904. After five years of fundraising, the Sanatorium on Pelican Lake, near Ninette, was opened in May of 1910, with a capacity for sixty patients—a capacity which, of necessity, quadrupled in thirteen years.

The first Medical Superintendent at Ninette was as famous as the Sanatorium itself. David Alexander Stewart (1874-1937), a Past President of the Manitoba Historical Society and a man of eclectic interests, was a devoted physician who made the eradication of tuberculosis his life&rsquos work. He himself had suffered from the disease and had convalesced at the Trudeau Sanatorium, Sarnac Lake, N.Y., only the year before the institution at Ninette began operation.

Since TB is largely a poor man&rsquos disease, procuring funding for the care and treatment of the patients at Ninette was one of Stewart&rsquos major preoccupations. In one way or another all three levels of government were involved. The municipalities for many years paid for patient support through a levy system. In 1939 the province assumed all costs, apart from those incurred in the treatment of veterans and Native people who were the responsibility of federal authorities.

Under Stewart&rsquos guidance the Ninette Sanatorium made unique contributions to the treatment of TB. Ninette offered the first program of in-sanatorium training of medical students. Numerous studies were done and papers written by Stewart and the medical staff there. Patients were encouraged in social and educational activities. Some became laboratory or X-ray technicians while at Ninette.

Patients&rsquo picnic, circa 1950.
Source: A. L. Paine

In 1929, changes to the legislation governing the Sanatorium Board left that body in charge of the preventative campaign against TB, and greatly involved the staff at Ninette. The tubercular skin test was twenty-two years old by then and the X-ray machine had already been brought into service. As A. L. Paine, former patient and physician at Ninette, has noted in a recent article in the University of Manitoba Medical Journal, despite the later advent of drug therapy this combination of case finding and the work of the sanatoriums was responsible for the virtual elimination of deaths due to TB in Manitoba in this century.

Current generations probably have little idea of the nature and horror of tuberculosis. Loss of energy, loss of weight and a cough are but the mild early signs of TB. In its advanced stages TB can cause bleeding and ulceration in the lungs resulting in pleurisy and the expectoration of blood and other infected material. That is the pulmonary form of the disease. The other and rarer form of the disease is miliary tuberculosis which can attack the lymph nodes, bones and joints, various organs, and the adrenal glands (the latter being Addison&rsquos disease) and can lead to tuberculous meningitis (inflammation of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord). The treatment of pulmonary TB could be much more drastic than isolation in a sanatorium. An infected lung of a patient was often temporarily collapsed and put to rest by the induction of air between the lung and the chest wall (pneumothorax) or even permanently collapsed by the surgical removal of seven or eight ribs (thoracoplasty). Both of these procedures were employed at Ninette beginning in 1934 when the Sanatorium was supplied with an operating room.

During the 1940s and &lsquo50s greatstrides were made in the drug treatment approach to tuberculosis with the drugs streptomycin and isoniazid. By the 1960s TB patients were commonly treated by the administration of these drugs and the surgical removal of ulcerated lung tissue. A vaccine against TB was developed in France in 1921 but won slow acceptance. Studies in the U.S. and Britain, again during the &lsquo40s and &lsquo50s, established its effectiveness. In the 1960s and &lsquo70s more antitubercular drugs were developed—ethambutol and rifampicin—and the home treatment of TB by drug therapy made the sanatorium obsolete. The Sanatorium at Ninette was closed in 1972.

Historic Sites of Manitoba: Ninette Sanatorium (Ninette, RM of Strathcona)

Historic Sites of Manitoba: Ninette Sanatorium Memorial Monument (Belmont, RM of Strathcona)


Robert L Paine DE-578 - History

Early Settlers of Swansea, Bristol Co., MA
Extracted from History of Swansea, Massachusetts, 1667 - 1917
Otis Olney Wright
Published by the town, 1917
pages 49 -

"At a town meeting lawfully warned, on the two and twentieth day of the twelfth month, commonly called February, in the year of our Lord 1669, it is ordered that all persons that are or shall be admitted inhabitants within this town, shall subscribe to the three proposalls* above written, to the several conditions and explanations therein expressed, before any lot of land be confirmed to them or any of them.

"We whose names are hereunder written, do fully, upon our admission to be inhabitants of the town of Swansea, assent to the above written agreement, made between the church now meeting here at Swansea and Capt. Thomas WILLETT and his associates, as the sd. agreement is specified and declared in the three proposalls afore written, with the severall conditions and explanation thereof concerning the present and future settlement of tis town. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed." (Signed by fifty-five persons.)

              • Thomas WILLETT
              • John MYLES
              • John ALLEN
              • James BROWN
              • Nicholas TANNER
              • Hugh COLE
              • Benjamin ALBY
              • John BROWNE
              • Samuel WHEATON
              • Thomas BARNES
              • Thos. ESTABROOKE
              • Richard SHARPE
              • Wm. INGRAHAM
              • Thos. MANNING
              • Wm. CAHOONE
              • George ALDRICH
              • Nathan'l LEWIS
              • John THRUBER
              • Jona BOSWORTH
              • Joseph LEWIS
              • Wm. HAYWARD
              • Jno. THURBER, 2d
              • Gerard INGRAHAM
              • Zach. EDDY
              • Hezekiah LUTHER
              • John PADDOCK
              • Samuel LUTHER
              • Caleb EDDY
              • John MYLES Jr.
              • Thomas LEWIS
              • Joseph CARPENTER
              • Robert JONES
              • Eldad KINGSLEY
              • John MARTIN
              • John COLE
              • Joweph WHEATON
              • Nathan'l PAINE
              • Stephen BRACE
              • Gideon ALLEN
              • John DICKSE
              • Wm. BARTRAM
              • Joseph KENT
              • Sam'l WOODBURY
              • Nehemiah ALLEN
              • Sampson MASON
              • Job WINSLOW
              • Obadiah BOWEN, Jr.
              • Richard BURGESS
              • Jno. BUTTERWORTH
              • John WEST
              • Thos. ELLIOTT
              • Timothy BROOKS
              • Nathan'l TOOGOOD
              • Jere. CHILD
              • Obediah BROWN Senr.


              Active Boyd Professors

              Honoree Institution Specialty Biography Boyd Date
              C. Dinos Constantinides LSU Music Dr. Constantinides' Faculty Page 1986
              Nicolas G. Bazan LSUHSC-NO Neuroscience Dr. Bazan's Faculty Page 1994
              George Voyiadjis LSU Civil & Environmental Eng. Dr. Voyiadjis' Faculty Page 1996
              Isiah M. Warner LSU Chemistry Dr. Warner's Faculty Page 2000
              Mark A. Batzer LSU Biological Sciences Dr. Batzer's Faculty Page 2008
              Eric Ravussin PBRC Diabetes & Metabolism Dr. Ravussin's Faculty Page 2012
              James G. Oxley LSU Mathematics Dr. Oxley's Faculty Page 2012
              R. Eugene Turner LSU Oceanography/CoastalSci Dr. Turner's Faculty Page 2013
              Suzanne L. Marchand LSU History Dr. Marchand's Faculty Page 2014
              Claude Bouchard PBRC Obesity Dr. Bouchard's Faculty Page 2016
              Susanne Brenner LSU Mathematics Dr. Brenner's Faculty Page 2017
              Willis Delony LSU Music Dr. Delony's Faculty Webpage 2019
              Gabriela González LSU Physics/Astronomy Dr. Gabriela González's Faculty Page 2019

              Historical Sources for Medieval Norman Families

              Best-researched and preferred online database for medieval family relations: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Medieval Lands Database by Charles Cawley. Meticulously researched, with supporting evidence for all claims from primary sources, which are extensively quoted (usually in Latin). Please use this database as the most definitive guide for family relationships for the Anglo-Norman families, and please insert relevant information from this database into all Master Profiles as you are developing the "About Me"" sections.

              You are encouraged to transcribe and/or share relevant materials from scholarly medieval history books and articles (always providing full source citations). Be aware that many of these are now accessible online. Please see bibliographies below for ideas and for your reading pleasure if you'd like to learn more about this period in history. (Please add to it if you know of books and articles about the Normans.)


              Lynn S. Paine

              Lynn Sharp Paine is a Baker Foundation Professor, John G. McLean Professor Emerita and Senior Associate Dean for International Development at Harvard Business School. A member and former chair of the General Management unit, she previously served as Senior Associate Dean for Faculty Development and chair of the School’s required course on Leadership and Corporate Accountability, which she co-founded. Her current teaching assignments include Corporate Governance and Boards of Directors in the MBA program, as well as various executive programs including Making Corporate Boards More Effective, Women on Boards, Preparing to Be a Corporate Director, and Leading Global Businesses.

              Ms. Paine's research focuses on the leadership and governance of companies that meld high ethical standards with outstanding financial results. Her latest book is Capitalism at Risk: How Business Can Lead (HBR Press, summer 2020) with HBS colleagues Joe Bower and Dutch Leonard. This new edition updates and expands their earlier Capitalism at Risk: Rethinking the Role of Business (HBR Press, 2011). Her recent articles include "Covid-19 Is Rewriting the Rules of Corporate Governance," "A Guide to the Big Ideas and Debates in Corporate Governance," "CEOs Say Their Aim Is Inclusive Prosperity. Do They Mean It?," “The Error at the Heart of Corporate Leadership,” and “Sustainability in the Boardroom" — all published in the Harvard Business Review. She has written more than 200 cases, course notes, and articles, as well as the text and casebook Leadership, Ethics, and Organizational Integrity: A Strategic Perspective. Library Journal named her book Value Shift: Why Companies Must Merge Social and Financial Imperatives to Achieve Superior Performance (McGraw Hill, 2003) one of that year’s best business books.

              Ms. Paine is a director of Atos SE (NYSE Euronext Paris), an international digital services company, and a member of the Global Advisory Council for Odebrecht, S.A. (Brazil). She also serves as a Faculty Associate of Harvard University’s Safra Center for Ethics. For her innovative course development, she received the Faculty Pioneer Lifetime Achievement Award from The Aspen Institute Center for Business Education. In 2018, she was awarded the Rendanheyi Badge Lifetime Achievement Award (China) for her research and contributions to management theory and practice. Ms. Paine has served as a consultant to numerous firms, companies, and industry groups, and sat on various advisory boards and panels including the academic council of the Hills Program on Governance, The Conference Board’s Blue‐Ribbon Commission on Public Trust and Private Enterprise after Enron’s collapse, and The Conference Board's Task Force on Executive Compensation after the financial crisis. She was a director of RiskMetrics Group from 2008 until it became part of MSCI in June 2010, and served two terms as a member of the Governing Board of the Center for Audit Quality (CAQ) in Washington, D.C.

              A summa cum laude graduate of Smith College, Ms. Paine holds a doctorate in moral philosophy from Oxford University and a law degree from the Harvard Law School. She practiced law with the Boston firm of Hill & Barlow early in her career. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty, Ms. Paine taught at Georgetown University Business School and the University of Virginia's Darden School of Business as well as National Cheng Chi University in Taiwan, where she was a Luce Scholar. She is a permanent member of the Henry Luce Foundation's Luce Scholar Selection Panel. She and her husband, Tom Paine, live in Wellesley, Massachusetts.

              Q. Who should take the lead in fixing market capitalism? A. Business, not government alone. The spread of capitalism worldwide has made people wealthier than ever before. But capitalism's future is far from assured. Pandemics, income inequality, resource depletion, mass migrations from poor to rich countries, religious fundamentalism, the misuse of social media, and cyberattacks these are just a few of the threats to continuing prosperity that we see dominating the headlines every day. How can capitalism be sustained? And who should spearhead the effort? Critics turn to government. In their groundbreaking book, "Capitalism at Risk," Harvard Business School professors Joseph Bower, Herman Leonard, and Lynn Paine argue that while robust governments must play a role, leadership by business is essential. For enterprising companies, whether large multinationals, established regional players, or small startups, the current threats to market capitalism present important opportunities. In this updated and expanded edition of "Capitalism at Risk," Bower, Leonard, and Paine set forth a renewed and more urgent call to action. With three additional chapters and a new preface, the authors explain how the eleven original disruptors of the global market system clash with the digital age, and they provide lessons on how to take action. Presenting examples of companies already making a difference, Bower, Leonard, and Paine show how business must serve both as innovator and activist, developing corporate strategies that effect change at the community, national, and international levels. Filled with rich insights, this new edition of "Capitalism at Risk" presents a compelling and constructive vision for the future of market capitalism.

              The spread of capitalism worldwide has made people wealthier than ever before and raised living standards to new heights. But capitalism’s future is far from assured. The global financial meltdown of 2008 came within a hair’s breadth of triggering another Great Depression. Despite stirrings of recovery, economies in Europe are still teetering. And powerful forces—income inequality, resource depletion, mass migrations from poor to rich countries, and religious fundamentalism, to name just a few—continue to pose a serious threat to the prosperity capitalism engendered.

              How can the future of capitalism be secured? And who should spearhead the effort? Many observers point to government. But in Capitalism at Risk, Harvard Business School professors Joseph L. Bower, Herman B. Leonard, and Lynn S. Paine argue otherwise. While the authors agree that governments must play a role in saving capitalism, they maintain that businesses should lead the way. Indeed, for enterprising companies—whether large multinationals, established regional players, or small start-ups—the current threats to market capitalism present vital opportunities.

              Drawing on discussions with business leaders around the world, the authors identify ten potential disruptors of the global market system and diagnose the causes behind existing institutions’ inability to combat them effectively. They argue that companies must stop seeing themselves as bystanders and instead develop innovative business strategies that address the disruptors, produce profitable growth, and strengthen institutions at the community, national, and international levels. The authors then present examples of companies that are already making a difference.

              Filled with rich insights, this provocative new book presents a compelling and constructive vision for the future of market capitalism.

              More and more companies recognize the importance of corporate responsibility to their long-term success—and yet the matter gets short shrift in most boardrooms, consistently ranking at the bottom of some two dozen possible priorities. Many years ago labor conditions in Asian contract factories prompted Nike board member Jill Ker Conway to lobby for a board-level corporate responsibility committee, which the company created in 2001. In the years since, the committee has steadily broadened its purview, now advising on a broad range of issues including innovation and acquisitions in addition to labor practices and resource sustainability.

              A close examination of Nike’s experience has led HBS professor Lynn S. Paine to conclude that a dedicated board-level committee of this sort could be a valuable addition to many if not most companies in at least five ways: as a source of knowledge and expertise, as a sounding board and constructive critic, as a driver of accountability, as a stimulus for innovation, and as a resource for the full board.

              In an accompanying interview with Paine, Conway discusses the committee’s creation and provides an insider’s perspective on what has made it so effective.

              Today, corporate accountability is as vital to the bottom line as an effective business model. Value Shift makes a strong case for the merits of corporate responsibility and shows how a value-positive orientation contributes to superior performance through better risk management, improved organizational functioning, increased shareholder confidence, and enhanced public standing. Lynn Sharp Paine offers strategies for implementing an enterprise-wide value system and provides the tools need to build companies that can prosper in the new era of corporate accountability.

              Value Shift articulates exactly why the superior performers of the future will be those companies that can satisfy both the social and financial expectations of their constituencies. By explaining the larger forces driving the current focus on scandals and ethics, Value Shift points to a new era in the corporation’s development and shows what managers can do to align their companies’ performance with the higher standard expected today.

              An extensive global survey by three Harvard Business School professors finds that employees agree on core standards of corporate behavior but meeting those standards will require new approaches to managing business conduct. The compliance and ethics programs of most companies today fall short of addressing multinationals' basic responsibilities, let alone such vexing issues as how to stay competitive in markets where rivals follow different rules. Companies must bring to the management of business conduct the same performance tools and concepts that they use to manage quality, innovation, and financial results.

              To achieve growth and profitability in the world's third-largest economy, multinationals need strong leadership--but China is tough on top executives. Pulsating with opportunity, China attracts foreigners, yet HR professionals continue to rank it as one of the most challenging destinations for expatriates. Many executives sent to lead operations in China are ill equipped to tackle the country's unique challenges. And it's hard to overcome that handicap, because leading in China calls for skills that go beyond--and in some cases conflict with--standard business teaching and practice. Foreign executives must be adept at reworking management orthodoxies in real time to do well there. Success requires cultural understanding and adaptability, market knowledge, the ability to sense and respond to rapid change, and support from headquarters. Most importantly, effective leaders have the crucial ability to play roles that Westerners often view as contradictory: they are strategic yet hands-on authoritative yet nurturing and action-driven yet circumspect. Above all, they have the intellectual dexterity to develop new frameworks and capabilities to meet China's particular circumstances. This article illustrates how CEOs have modified accepted wisdom to tackle their biggest challenges in China. Though some of the lessons may seem like common sense to experienced China hands, they're anything but to a freshman expat.

              Lynn Sharp Paine is a Baker Foundation Professor, John G. McLean Professor Emerita and Senior Associate Dean for International Development at Harvard Business School. A member and former chair of the General Management unit, she previously served as Senior Associate Dean for Faculty Development and chair of the School’s required course on Leadership and Corporate Accountability, which she co-founded. Her current teaching assignments include Corporate Governance and Boards of Directors in the MBA program, as well as various executive programs including Making Corporate Boards More Effective, Women on Boards, Preparing to Be a Corporate Director, and Leading Global Businesses.

              Ms. Paine's research focuses on the leadership and governance of companies that meld high ethical standards with outstanding financial results. Her latest book is Capitalism at Risk: How Business Can Lead (HBR Press, summer 2020) with HBS colleagues Joe Bower and Dutch Leonard. This new edition updates and expands their earlier Capitalism at Risk: Rethinking the Role of Business (HBR Press, 2011). Her recent articles include "Covid-19 Is Rewriting the Rules of Corporate Governance," "A Guide to the Big Ideas and Debates in Corporate Governance," "CEOs Say Their Aim Is Inclusive Prosperity. Do They Mean It?," “The Error at the Heart of Corporate Leadership,” and “Sustainability in the Boardroom" — all published in the Harvard Business Review. She has written more than 200 cases, course notes, and articles, as well as the text and casebook Leadership, Ethics, and Organizational Integrity: A Strategic Perspective. Library Journal named her book Value Shift: Why Companies Must Merge Social and Financial Imperatives to Achieve Superior Performance (McGraw Hill, 2003) one of that year’s best business books.

              Ms. Paine is a director of Atos SE (NYSE Euronext Paris), an international digital services company, and a member of the Global Advisory Council for Odebrecht, S.A. (Brazil). She also serves as a Faculty Associate of Harvard University’s Safra Center for Ethics. For her innovative course development, she received the Faculty Pioneer Lifetime Achievement Award from The Aspen Institute Center for Business Education. In 2018, she was awarded the Rendanheyi Badge Lifetime Achievement Award (China) for her research and contributions to management theory and practice. Ms. Paine has served as a consultant to numerous firms, companies, and industry groups, and sat on various advisory boards and panels including the academic council of the Hills Program on Governance, The Conference Board’s Blue‐Ribbon Commission on Public Trust and Private Enterprise after Enron’s collapse, and The Conference Board's Task Force on Executive Compensation after the financial crisis. She was a director of RiskMetrics Group from 2008 until it became part of MSCI in June 2010, and served two terms as a member of the Governing Board of the Center for Audit Quality (CAQ) in Washington, D.C.

              A summa cum laude graduate of Smith College, Ms. Paine holds a doctorate in moral philosophy from Oxford University and a law degree from the Harvard Law School. She practiced law with the Boston firm of Hill & Barlow early in her career. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty, Ms. Paine taught at Georgetown University Business School and the University of Virginia's Darden School of Business as well as National Cheng Chi University in Taiwan, where she was a Luce Scholar. She is a permanent member of the Henry Luce Foundation's Luce Scholar Selection Panel. She and her husband, Tom Paine, live in Wellesley, Massachusetts.


              History

              Launching an Inspired Idea
              "The first drudgery of settling new colonies is now pretty well over," wrote Benjamin Franklin in 1743, "and there are many in every province in circumstances that set them at ease, and afford leisure to cultivate the finer arts, and improve the common stock of knowledge." The scholarly society he advocated became a reality that year. By 1769 international acclaim for its accomplishments assured its permanence. Franklin's influence and the needs of American settlements led the Society in its early days to pursue equally "all philosophical Experiments that let Light into the Nature of Things, tend to increase the Power of Man over Matter, and multiply the Conveniencies or Pleasures of Life." Early Members included doctors, lawyers, clergymen, and merchants interested in science, and also many learned artisans and tradesmen like Franklin. Many founders of the republic were Members: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Rush, James Madison, and John Marshall as were many distinguished foreigners: Lafayette, von Steuben, Kosciusko.

              The Dimensions of Knowledge
              In the 18th century, natural philosophy, or the study of nature, comprised the kinds of investigations now considered scientific and technological. Members of the American Philosophical Society encouraged America's economic independence by improving agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation. Greatly contributing to the Society's international fame was its participation in astronomical observations of the 1760s. With one of his telescopes, erected on a platform behind the State House (now Independence Hall), David Rittenhouse plotted the transit of Venus, thus attracting the recognition of the scholarly world.

              Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Samuel Vaughan, a recent immigrant, led the revival of the Society after the Revolution. In 1780, Pennsylvania had granted it a charter guaranteeing that the APS might correspond with learned individuals and institutions "of any nation or country" on its legitimate business at all times "whether in peace or war." The state also deeded to the Society a portion of present-day Independence Square, on which it erected Philosophical Hall in 1785 – 1789.

              The APS fulfilled the function of a national library and even patent office.

              Learning and Freedom
              The enlightened terms of the Society's charter and the location of Philosophical Hall adjacent to the seat of government clearly illustrate how closely the new nation linked learning and freedom, regarding each as the support and protection of the other.

              Until about 1840 the APS, though a private organization, fulfilled many functions of a national academy of science, national library and museum, and even patent office. Accordingly, chiefs of staff, cabinet officers, and presidents often consulted the Society. Jefferson, and other Members of the Society, instructed Lewis and Clark concerning the scientific, linguistic, and anthropological aspects of their impending exploration of the Louisiana Territory.

              The Society served as the prototype for a number of other learned societies, and gave birth to specialized organizations for agriculture, chemistry, and history. For many years the Society's hall provided space for the University of Pennsylvania, Thomas Sully's studio, Charles Willson Peale's museum, and several independent cultural and philanthropic organizations. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Society's interests were chiefly in the areas of American paleontology, geology, astronomical and meteorological observations, and Indian ethnology. The status of the APS is reflected in its Membership. John J. Audubon, Robert Fulton, Charles Darwin, Thomas Edison, Alexander von Humboldt, and Louis Pasteur were Members. The names of Albert Einstein, Robert Frost, George C. Marshall, and Linus Pauling hint at the scientific, humanistic, and public accomplishments of 20th-century Members. The Society first elected a woman in 1789 — the Russian Princess Dashkova, president of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, Marie Curie, Gerty T. Cori, and Margaret Mead are among other women elected.

              Vitality and Growth
              Vital new directions for Research, Meetings, and Publications were implemented in the 1930s thanks to major gifts by R. A. F. Penrose, E. R. Johnson, and others. A Research grant program began it has invested large sums in many scientific endeavors. Although some projects received substantial sums, such as archaeological excavations of Tikal, Guatemala, most grants sponsor modest projects, helping to produce scholarly books and articles. Another program arose to help scientists beginning research careers in clinical medicine. One of these individuals, David Fraser, later led the U.S. Public Health Service investigation of Legionnaires' Disease. The Society currently supports five granting programs.

              The Publications program, which had maintained a journal and a monograph series, added a book series, the Memoirs, and a Yearbook. During the 1930s growth required moving the Library into rented space in an adjacent building in 1959, the APS erected a specially designed facility, Library Hall. By 1981, expanded APS activities necessitated the purchase of a third building.

              Today the APS promotes useful knowledge through grants, publications, and a world-class research library.

              During World War II, the APS broadcast a radio series on science to Europe. Following the war, the Society helped lead the restoration of what became Independence National Historical Park. Scientists gathered at Philosophical Hall to consider the effects of atomic energy on the world. Other special conferences spawned practical new ideas, such as microfilm publishing.

              In addition to recognizing superior accomplishments by election to Membership, the Society awards special prizes and medals. Established in 1786, the Magellanic Premium for discoveries "relating to navigation, astronomy, or natural philosophy" is the oldest scientific prize given by an American institution. It has acknowledged the submarine circumnavigation of the globe and satellite space probes. The Barzun Prize (est. 1992) recognizes contributions to American or European cultural history. The Franklin Medal (est. 1906), designed by A. and L. St. Gaudens, has been awarded, among others, to Eduard Benes, Charles Huggins, and Otto Neugebauer. The Jefferson Medal (est. 1993) is awarded for distinguished achievement in the arts, humanities, or social sciences the Lashley Award (est. 1935) recognizes achievements in neurobiology the Lewis Award (est. 1935) honors a publication by the Society, and has been awarded to Enrico Fermi (1946), Millard Meiss (1967), and Kenneth Setton (1984), among others. The Moe (est. 1982) and Phillips (est. 1888) Prizes honor papers in the humanities and jurisprudence.


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