The layers of the earth

The Earth has its internal structure divided into three layers, described below.

Lithosphere or Earth's crust

Solid outer layer that surrounds the earth. It consists of rocks and soil of varying levels and is composed of a large amount of minerals.

The lithosphere has a thickness of approximately 72 km below the continents, which is called continental crust, and a thickness of approximately 8 km below the oceans, which is called oceanic crust.

The rocks that make up the lithosphere can be:

  • Magmatic rocks or igneous rocks: They are formed by the magma located below the solidifying rocks.
  • Sedimentary rocks: Formed by the lack of debris caused by erosive actions.
  • Metamorphic rocks: Formed by magmatic and sedimentary rocks that have changed.


Layer located just below the earth's crust and extends to almost half the radius of the earth. It is formed by several types of rocks that, due to the high temperatures, are in the pasty state and are called magma.


It is the innermost layer of the planet and represents about 1/3 of the entire mass of the earth. It has very high temperatures and is believed to be formed by metals such as iron and nickel, among other elements.