In 1492, the year of the discovery of America itself, the first permanent colony was established on the island of Hispaniola by Christopher Columbus, the discoverer.
Within a few decades many other colonies were established, spreading across the Caribbean islands, as well as Florida and Peru. Shortly thereafter, Portugal established a colony in Brazil, just as England colonized British Honduras (present-day Belize) and Jamaica.
The Dutch occupation was present in Guyana and still in Curacao, while the French took possession of Haiti, Guadeloupe and Martinique. The union of the New and the Old World was responsible for a radical change in the destinies of their history.
The potential of US natural resources has significantly altered Europe's economic picture. Old World physical diseases were one of the factors responsible for the decimation of the Native American population. On the other hand, the European conquerors became masters of the lands that were once owned by the Aztec peoples, the Mayans and other native peoples.
The Spanish were undoubtedly the most active colonizers.
By the late eighteenth century, they had established colonies in the regions of present-day San Francisco, Mexico City, and Los Angeles, as well as Buenos Aires and Lima.
Many noble metals were sent from American lands to Spain, extracted from American mines. Unlike the British colonies, which were governed by local representative powers from the beginning, the Spanish colonies were governed from Madrid. The Roman Catholic Church had an important influence on the colonization of America.
There were many Catholic cathedrals that were built in the various regions of Latin America. This fact helped in the creation of local influences by the religious institution. The aims of the Society of Jesus itself in its creation were the expansion of Christian faith (and ideology) through catechizing and religious indoctrination of the natives.
The fulfillment of such objectives entailed the expansion of the church's domains by the colonies, and facilitated the relations of domination between the colonizing Catholic people and the colonized “Gentile” people.
Chronology of the History of America
1492 - Christopher Columbus discovers America on October 12.
1500 - Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil on April 22nd.
1501 - Search for the passage through the Northeast by Corte Real.
1519 - Conquest of Mexico, performed by Hernán Cortez.
1531-1532 - Conquest of Peru, by Francisco Pizarro.
1535 - Pizarro founds the city of Lima | Conquest of Chile, by Almagro.
1536 - Foundation of the city of Buenos Aires by Mendonça | Aiolas Deep Assumption.
1538 - Quesada deep Santa Fe of Bogota.
1540 - Descent of the Amazon, by Orellana.
1541 - Valdivia founds the city of Santiago de Chile.
1563 - Arrival of the first 300 black slaves to the British colonies of North America.
1567 - Foundation of the city of Caracas.
1584 - Organization of indigenous reductions carried out by the Jesuits.
1604 - French founded Port-Royal (present-day Anapolis, United States).
1608 - Champlain founds Quebec.
1609 - Dutch found the city of New Amsterdam (now New York, United States).
1649 - Freedom of religious belief in the Mayland Catholic colony.
1697 - The first colonial war between France and England ends.
1726 - The city of Montevideo is founded.
1744 - France and England fight the second colonial war.
1759 - Invasion of Canada by the English.
1763 - France loses dominance of Canada.
1776 - The United States declares itself an independent nation.
1780 - Tupac-Amuru leads the Inca revolt against Spanish rule.
1789 - George Washington is the head of state of the United States of America.
1799 - Death of George Washington.
1803 - The territory of the present state of Louisiana is bought from the French by the Americans.
1806 - Buenos Aires is attacked by the English.
1807 - English takeover of Montevideo and new attack on Buenos Aires.
1810 - Paraguay declares itself independent. | Bolivar leads revolt in Venezuela and is defeated. | Hidalgo leads the first attempt at Mexican emancipation.
1812 - Bolivar is again defeated.
1814 - Victorious Revolution in Venezuela, with Bolivar assuming dictatorial powers | Victorious revolution in Uruguay.
1815 - Morelos leads Mexico's second attempt at emancipation.
1816 - Mina leads Mexico's third attempt at emancipation.
1818 - Liberation of Chile by Argentine General San Martin.
1820 - The Spanish general Iturbide passes to the side of the Mexican revolts.
1821 - Peru achieves its independence | The Portuguese regent D. João VI conquers the Eastern Band (Uruguay) and the annex to Brazil.
1822 - Iturbide leads the victorious revolt and becomes Emperor, under the name of Augustine I | Bolivar frees Ecuador.
1823 - Abdication of Augustine I | Monroe Doctrine in the United States | Separation of the United Provinces of Central America from Mexico.
1824 - Victory of General Sucre at the Battle of Ayacucho, leading to the definitive liberation of Peru | Iturbide, after a trip to Italy, returns to Mexico, where he is arrested and shot.
1825 - Independence of Upper Peru (Bolivia) | Revolt of the Eastern Band, which tends to separate from the Brazilian Empire.
1828 - Uruguay achieves its independence.
1830 - Expulsion and death of Bolivar.
1833 - Falkland Islands occupied by England.
1834 - Argentina under the dictatorship of Roses.
1839 - Breakdown of the Provinces of Central America into five republics: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador, and Nicaragua.
1845 - War over the possession of the territories of Texas (United States and Mexico).
1848 - Under the Treaty of Guadeloupe, the United States annexes the territories of Texas, California, Arizona, and New Mexico to its domains, paying a paltry indemnity.
1851 - Brazil and Urquiza in alliance.
1852 - Dictatorship of Roses comes to an end.
1861 - Secession War in the United States begins.
1863 - French General Forey enters the Mexican capital victoriously.
1864 - Maximilian becomes Emperor of Mexico | Brazilian intervention in Uruguay | Beginning of the Paraguayan War.
1865 - End of the Civil War in the United States. North Victoria. President Lincoln is murdered.
1867 - Withdrawal of French troops from Mexico carried out by Napoleon III, under the demands of the United States. Emperor Maximilian shooting, which lacked military resources. Benito Juárez rises to power again | Russia sells Alaska territory to United States | Canada's autonomy from England.
1870 - The Paraguayan War ends with the victory of the Allies (Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay).
1876 - Because of Antofagasta Salitaria, Chile declares war on Peru and Bolivia.
1883 - Chile emerges victorious from the war against Bolivia and Peru. Bolivia thus loses the Pacific coast.
1885 - The Canadian transcontinental railway from Halifax to Vancouver opens.
1888 - Presidency of Mexico is by Porfírio Díaz.
1895 - Separatist Revolution in Cuba.
1898 - Hawaii moves to US domains: US occupation in Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, Guam, and Marianas.
1903 - United States-fomented Panamanian Uprising to Control Panama Canal | Establishment of the Republic of Panama
1906 - In San Francisco, California, one of the greatest earthquakes in its history.
1914 - Panama Canal opens.
1917 - Entry of the United States into World War I.
1918 - The United States wins the War.
1930 - Revolution erupts in Argentina.
1932 - Roosevelt Presidency in the United States, with the New deal and the good neighbor policy.
1941 - Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and subsequent United States entry into World War II.
1942 - American Chancellors at a conference in Rio de Janeiro.
1945 - American victory and allied in World War II.